Notes Figures 1 - 10
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2. Coale, Ansley J. and Ellen E. Kisker. 1990. Defects in Data on Old-Age mortality in the United States: New Procedures for Calculating Mortality Schedules and Life Tables at the Highest Ages. Asian and Pacific Population Forum. 4:1-31.

3. Condran, Gretchen A., Christine L. Himes, and Samuel H. Preston. 1991. Old-Age Mortality Patterns in Low-Mortality Countries: An Evaluation of Population and Death Data at Advanced ages, 1950 to the Present. Population Bulletin of the United Nations. 30: 23-60.

4. Elo, Irma T. and Samuel H. Preston. 1994. Estimating African-American Mortality from Inaccurate Data. Demography. 31:427-458.

5. Hendricks, Jon and Carol Davis Hendricks.1979. Dimensions of Aging. Cambridge, MA. Winthrop Publishers.

6. Jeune, Bernard and James W. Vaupel (eds.). 1998. Validation of Extraordinary Longevity. Odense Monograph on Population Aging. Odense University Press. Odense, Denmark. (pending).

7. Kannisto, Vaino.1994. Development of Oldest-Old Mortality, 1950-1990: Evidence from 28 Developed Countries. Odense Monographs on Population Aging 1. Odense University Press. Odense, Denmark.

8. Kannisto, Vaino.1996. The Advancing Frontier of Survival. Odense Monographs on Population Aging 3. Odense University Press. Odense, Denmark.

9. Kestenbaum, Bert. 1992. A Description of the Extreme Aged Population Based on Improved Medicare Enrollment Data. Demography. 29: 565-580.

10. Kestenbaum, Bert.1997. Recent Mortality of the Oldest Old, From Medicare Data. Paper Presented at the 1997 PAA Meeting. March 26-28 1997, Washington D.C.

11. Lauderdale, Diane S. and Jack Goldberg.1996. The Expanded Racial and Ethnic Codes in the Medicare Data Files: Their Completeness of Coverage and Accuracy. American Journal of Public Health. 86: 712-716.

12. Manton, K.G. and E. Stallard. 1981. Methods for Evaluating the Heterogeneity of Aging Processes in Human Populations Using Vital Statistics Data: Explaining the Black/White Mortality Crossover by a Model of Mortality Selection. Human Biology 53: 47-67.

13. Manton, K.G., C.H. Patrick, and K.W. Johnson. 1987. Health Differentials between Blacks and Whites: Recent Trends in Mortality and Morbidity. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, Suppl. 1, 65:129-199.

14. Manton, Kenneth G. and James W.Vaupel.1995. Survival After the Age of 80 in the United States, Sweden, France, England, and Japan. New England Journal of Medicine. 333:1232-1235.

15. McKinley, Charles and Robert W. Frase.1970. Launching Social Secuirty, A Capture-and-Record Account 1935-1937. Madison, WI. The University of Wisconsin Press.

16. Myers, George C.; Barbara B.Torrey, and Kevin G. Kinsella. 1992. The Paradox of the Oldest Old in the United States: an International Comparison. In: The Oldest Old. Richard M. Suzman, David P. Willis, and Kenneth G. Manton (eds.). 58-85 pp. Oxford University Press: New York.

17. Myers, Robert J. 1978. An Investigation of the Age of an Alleged Centenarian. Demography. 15(2): 235-236.

18. Otten, Mac W.; Teutsch, Steven M.; Williamson, David F.; Marks, James S. 1990. The Effect of Known Risk Factors on the Excess Mortality of Black Adults in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association. 263:6, Feb 9:845-50.

19. Peterson, J.W. 1990. Age of Wisdom: Elderly Black Women in Family and Church. Pp. 213-228 in The Cultural Context of Aging J. Sokolowsky (ed.) Bergin and Garvey: New York.

20. Preston, Samuel H. and Ira Rosenwaike. 1984. Age Overstatement and Puerto Rican Longevity. Human Biology. 56:503-525.

21. Preston, Samuel H., Irma T. Elo, Ira Rosenwaike, and Mark Hill.1996. African-American Mortality at Older Ages: Results of a Matching Study. Demography. 33: 193-209.

22. Rosenwaike, Ira and B. Logue.1985. The Extreme Aged in America: A Portrait of an Expanding Population. Greenwood Press: Westport, CT.

23. Rosenwaike, Ira. 1991. Mortality experience of Hispanic populations. Pp. 3-11 in Ira Rosenwaike (ed.) Mortality of Hispanic Populations: Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans in the United States and in Home Countries. Greenwood Press: Westport CT.

24. Shai, Donna and Ira Rosenwaike.1991. An Overview of Age-Adjusted Death Rates among the Hispanic Populations in their Home Countries and in the United States. Pp. 193-201. In Ira Rosenwaike (ed.) Mortality of Hispanic Populations: Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans in the United States and in Home Countries. Greenwood Press: Westport, CT.

25. Shrestha, Laura B. and Samuel H. Preston.1995. Consistency of Census and Vital Registration Data on Older Americans: 1970-1990. Survey Methodology. 21:167-177.

26. Taeuber, Cynthia M.; and Ira Rosenwaike. 1992. A Demographic Portrait of America's Oldest Old. Pp. 17-49. In: The Oldest Old. Richard M. Suzman, David P. Willis, and Kenneth G. Manton (eds.). Oxford University Press: New York.

27. Vaupel, James W., James R. Carey, Kaare Christensen, Thomas E. Johnson, Anatoli I. Yashin, Niels V. Holm, Ivan A. Iachine, Vaino Kannisto, Aziz A. Khazaeli, Pablo Liedo, Valter D. Longo, Yi Zeng, Kenneth G. Manton, and James W. Curtsinger.1998. Biodemographic Trajectories of Longevity. Science. 280:855-860.

Notes Figures 1 - 10

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Evaluation of U.S. Mortality Patterns at Old Ages
Using the Medicare Enrollment Data Base.

Allan M. Parnell and Cynthia R. Owens
1999 - 2000 Max-Planck-Gesellschaft ISSN 1435-9871