References Figures
Tables

Table 1: Mean age at death by quarter of birth for major groups of causes of death; all deaths above age 50 in Austria between the years 1990 and 1997.

Season of birth

Cause of death

1st Quarter

2nd Quarter

3rd Quarter

4th Quarter

Annual

Average

p-value

(F-test)

Infectious diseases

71.74

71.48

72.39

72.89

72.14

0.314

Malignant neoplasm

73.48

73.37

73.56

73.81

73.55

0.000

Circulatory diseases

80.26

80.04

80.36

80.64

80.32

0.000

Other natural causes of death

77.21

76.76

77.06

77.58

77.20

0.000

Accidents & Suicides

72.77

72.44

72.82

73.31

72.83

0.005

 

Table 2a: Model 1a: Relative mortality risk estimated by a multivariate survival model which includes simultaneously the four covariates "month of birth", "current month", "sex" and "period".

 

Month of birth

Current month

 

RMR

p-value

RMR

p-value

month        
Weeks 1-4
(1 Jan –28 Jan)

0.967

0.000

1 (RG)

 
Weeks 5-8
(29 Jan –25 Feb)

0.974

0.000

0.995

0.289

Weeks 9-12
(26 Feb – 25 Mar)

0.997

0.542

0.998

0.631

Weeks 13-16
(26 Mar – 22 Apr)

1 (RG)

 

0.998

0.638

Weeks 17-20
(23 Apr – 20 May)

1.000

0.836

0.997

0.524

Weeks 21-24
(21 May – 17 Jun)

1.002

0.616

0.991

0.046

Weeks 25-28
(18 Jun – 15 Jul)

0.994

0.221

0.988

0.012

Weeks 29-32
(16 Jul – 12 Aug)

0.981

0.000

0.990

0.026

Weeks 33-36
(13 Aug – 9 Sep)

0.979

0.000

0.991

0.060

Weeks 37-40
(10 Sep – 7 Oct)

0.974

0.000

0.998

0.640

Weeks 41-44

(8 Oct – 4 Nov)

0.971

0.000

0.998

0.683

Weeks 45-48
(5 Nov- 2 Dec)

0.969

0.000

1.001

0.834

Weeks 49-52
(3 Dec – 31 Dec)

0.969

0.000

1.001

0.861

sex        
males

1(RG)

     
females

0.664

0.000

   
period        
1968-1974

1(RG)

     
1975-1979

0.954

0.000

   
1980-1984

0.943

0.000

   
1985-1989

0.910

0.000

   
1990-1994

0.920

0.000

   
1995-1998

0.916

0.000

   
age        
50-54

1(RG)

     
55-59

1.544

0.000

   
60-64

2.482

0.000

   
65-69

3.914

0.000

   
70-74

6.255

0.000

   
75-79

9.915

0.000

   
80-84

15.785

0.000

   
85-89

25.768

0.000

   
90+

45.759

0.000

   

RG...reference group, RMR...Relative mortality risk

Table 2b: Model 1b: Relative mortality risk estimated by a multivariate survival model which includes simultaneously the four covariates "month of birth", "current month", "sex" and "cohort".

 

Month of birth

Current month

 

RMR

p-value

RMR

p-value

month        
Weeks 1-4
(1 Jan –28 Jan)

0.969

0.000

1 (RG)

 
Weeks 5-8
(29 Jan –25 Feb)

0.976

0.000

0.995

0.289

Weeks 9-12
(26 Feb – 25 Mar)

0.998

0.541

0.998

0.631

Weeks 13-16
(26 Mar – 22 Apr)

1(RG)

 

0.998

0.638

Weeks 17-20
(23 Apr – 20 May)

1.000

0.865

0.997

0.524

Weeks 21-24
(21 May – 17 Jun)

1.000

0.883

0.991

0.046

Weeks 25-28
(18 Jun – 15 Jul)

0.993

0.096

0.988

0.012

Weeks 29-32
(16 Jul – 12 Aug)

0.980

0.000

0.990

0.026

Weeks 33-36
(13 Aug – 9 Sep)

0.977

0.000

0.991

0.060

Weeks 37-40
(10 Sep – 7 Oct)

0.971

0.000

0.998

0.640

Weeks 41-44
(8 Oct – 4 Nov)

0.968

0.000

0.998

0.683

Weeks 45-48
(5 Nov- 2 Dec)

0.965

0.000

1.001

0.834

Weeks 49-52
(3 Dec – 31 Dec)

0.964

0.000

1.001

0.861

sex        
males

1(RG)

     
females

0.646

0.000

   
cohort        
1860-1879

1(RG)

     
1880-1889

0.911

0.000

   
1890-1899

0.839

0.000

   
1900-1909

0.782

0.000

   
1910-1918

0.729

0.000

   
age        
50-54

1(RG)

     
55-59

1.530

0.000

   
60-64

2.370

0.000

   
65-69

3.638

0.000

   
70-74

5.637

0.000

   
75-79

8.742

0.000

   
80-84

13.526

0.000

   
85-89

21.408

0.000

   
90+

36.560

0.000

   

RG... reference group, RMR...Relative Mortality Risk

 

Table 3a: Model 2a: Relative mortality risk estimated by a multivariate survival model which includes simultaneously the second-order interactions between "time lived since last birthday" and "month of birth", and the covariates "sex" and "period".

Time lived since last birthday

1-12 weeks

13-40 weeks

41-52 weeks

Covariates

RMR

p-value

RMR

p-value

RMR

p-value

Month of birth
Weeks 1-4
(1 Jan –28 Jan)

1.00 (RG)

  

1.09

0.000

0.97

0.002

Weeks 5-8
(29 Jan –25 Feb)

1.02

0.074

1.10

0.000

0.97

0.001

Weeks 9-12
(26 Feb – 25 Mar)

1.12

0.000

1.10

0.000

0.99

0.452

Weeks 13-16
(26 Mar – 22 Apr)

1.20

0.000

1.06

0.000

1.02

0.025

Weeks 17-20
(23 Apr – 20 May)

1.22

0.000

1.02

0.075

1.10

0.000

Weeks 21-24
(21 May – 17 Jun)

1.20

0.000

1.00

0.652

1.17

0.000

Weeks 25-28
(18 Jun – 15 Jul)

1.13

0.000

1.00

0.380

1.16

0.000

Weeks 29-32
(16 Jul – 12 Aug)

1.01

0.280

1.02

0.021

1.18

0.000

Weeks 33-36
(13 Aug – 9 Sep)

0.98

0.060

1.05

0.000

1.14

0.000

Weeks 37-40
(10 Sep – 7 Oct)

0.98

0.074

1.06

0.000

1.08

0.000

Weeks 41-44
(8 Oct – 4 Nov)

1.00

0.802

1.08

0.000

1.01

0.258

Weeks 45-48
(5 Nov- 2 Dec)

0.98

0.095

1.08

0.000

1.02

0.137

Weeks 49-52
(3 Dec – 31 Dec)

0.98

0.015

1.10

0.000

0.98

0.116

Sex
males (RG)

1(RG)

Females

0.64

0.000

Period
1968-1974

1(RG)

1975-1979

0.95

0.000

1980-1984

0.94

0.000

1985-1989

0.91

0.000

1990-1994

0.92

0.000

1995+

0.91

0.000

Age
50-54

1(RG)

55-59

1.54

0.000

60-64

2.48

0.000

65-69

3.91

0.000

70-74

6.26

0.000

75-79

9.92

0.000

80-84

15.79

0.000

85-89

25.77

0.000

90+

45.76

0.000

RG.......reference group, RMR... Relative Mortality Risk

Table 3b: Model 2b: Relative mortality risk estimated by a multivariate survival model which includes simultaneously the second-order interactions between "time lived since last birthday" and "month of birth", and the covariates "sex" and "cohort".

 

Time lived since last birthday

1-12 weeks

13-40 weeks

41-52 weeks

Covariates

RMR

p-value

RMR

p-value

RMR

p-value

Month of birth
Weeks 1-4
(1 Jan –28 Jan)

1.00 (RG)

 

1.09

0.000

0.97

0.001

Weeks 5-8
(29 Jan –25 Feb)

1.02

0.074

1.10

0.000

0.97

0.001

Weeks 9-12
(26 Feb – 25 Mar)

1.12

0.000

1.10

0.000

0.99

0.460

Weeks 13-16
(26 Mar – 22 Apr)

1.19

0.000

1.06

0.000

1.02

0.030

Weeks 17-20
(23 Apr – 20 May)

1.21

0.000

1.02

0.091

1.10

0.000

Weeks 21-24
(21 May – 17 Jun)

1.20

0.000

1.00

0.539

1.16

0.000

Weeks 25-28
(18 Jun – 15 Jul)

1.13

0.000

1.00

0.593

1.16

0.000

Weeks 29-32
(16 Jul – 12 Aug)

1.01

0.345

1.02

0.069

1.18

0.000

Weeks 33-36
(13 Aug – 9 Sep)

0.98

0.037

1.04

0.000

1.13

0.000

Weeks 37-40
(10 Sep – 7 Oct)

0.98

0.020

1.06

0.000

1.07

0.000

Weeks 41-44
(8 Oct – 4 Nov)

0.99

0.347

1.08

0.000

1.01

0.454

Weeks 45-48
(5 Nov- 2 Dec)

0.98

0.019

1.08

0.000

1.01

0.458

Weeks 49-52
(3 Dec – 31 Dec)

0.97

0.002

1.09

0.000

0.98

0.019

Sex
males (RG)

1(RG)

females

0.65

0.000

cohort
1860-1879

1(RG)

1880-1889

0.91

0.000

1890-1899

0.84

0.000

1900-1909

0.78

0.000

1910-1918

0.73

0.000

age
50-54

1(RG)

55-59

1.53

0.000

60-64

2.37

0.000

65-69

3.64

0.000

70-74

5.63

0.000

75-79

8.73

0.000

80-84

13.54

0.000

85-89

21.37

0.000

90+

36.50

0.000

RG...reference group, RMR... Relative Mortality Risk

 

References Figures

logo70.gif (2450 bytes)

Longevity and Month of Birth:
Evidence from Austria and Denmark

Gabrielle Doblhammer
1999 - 2000 Max-Planck-Gesellschaft ISSN 1435-9871
http://www.demographic-research.org/Volumes/Vol1/3