Entry into motherhood in Sweden
The influence of economic factors on the rise and fall in fertility,

Britta Hoem

Date Received:07 February 2000
Date Published:17 April 2000

On the background of the dramatic swings in the Swedish TFR since the mid-1980s we present a first attempt at assessing the impact of labor-market trends on the timing of the first birth based on individual-level register data covering all Swedish women born in 1950 or later. Among our covariates we have each woman's income, partitioned into any income earned from work, any unemployment benefits, and any public support for educational activities. We also have employment trends in her home municipality. The latter variables are included for every relevant year. We find that first-birth rates rose and fell in step with municipal employment levels. The effect is especially strong for young women, and the decline in first birth during the 1990s was concentrated primarily among women aged below 30. First-birth rates increased with a woman's earned income. Unemployed women did not have particularly low first-birth rates, but students did.

Author's affiliation:
Britta Hoem is with Statistics Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden

Table of Contents:
1    Introduction
2    Data and method of analysis
3    Theoretical and practical issues
4    Trends in first births
5    The impact of employment trends
6    The effect of labor-market attachment
7    The individual woman's labor-market situation
8    The effect of public policies
9    Acknowledgements

Keywords: fertility, fertility decline, fertility determinants, Sweden

To view and/or download the PDF file, click on the icon PDF file. Once you are in the PDF file, use your browser back button to return to the online article, or select one of the sections from the article window on the left.

Word count: 5,555

1. Introduction

logo70.gif (2450 bytes)

Entry into motherhood in Sweden:
the influence of economic factors on the rise and fall in fertility, 1986-1997

Britta Hoem
© 2000 Max-Planck-Gesellschaft ISSN 1435-9871