A Search for Aggregate-Level Effects of Education on Fertility,
Using Data from Zimbabwe

Øystein Kravdal

Date Received:10 May 2000
Date Published:4 August 2000

Abstract:
The analysis was based on the 1994 ZDHS combined with aggregate data from the 1992 census. Discrete-time hazard models for first and higher-order births were estimated for 1990-94. The average length of education in the district and the proportion who are literate were found to have no impact on a woman's birth rate above and beyond that of her own education, when it was controlled for urbanization. This was the case for women who themselves had little or no education as well as for the better-educated. So far, no significant influence of aggregate education on fertility has been well documented in the literature either. However, in this study, aggregate-level effects appeared in models for fertility desires and contraceptive use among married women with at least one child.

Author's affiliation:
Øystein Kravdal
is with the Department of Economics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1095 Blindern, N-0317 Oslo, Norway

Table of Contents:
1.   Introduction
2.   Theoretical Considerations
3.   Data and Methods
4.   Main Effects of Aggregate Education on Birth Rates
5.   Macro-Micro Interactions in Birth Rate Models
6.   Other Effects of Aggregate Education
7.   The Importance of Husbands' and Men's Education
8.   Summary and Conclusion
9.   Acknowledgement
    Notes
    References
    Tables

Keywords: education, fertility, models, aggregate, multilevel

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Word count: 8,718

1. Introduction


A Search for Aggregate-Level Effects of Education on Fertility, Using Data from Zimbabwe
Øystein Kravdal
© 2000 Max-Planck-Gesellschaft ISSN 1435-9871
http://www.demographic-research.org/Volumes/Vol3/3