Baltes, M. M., A. M. Freund, and A. L. Horgas (1999). Men and women in the Berlin aging study. In
P. B. Baltes and K. U. Mayer (Eds.), The Berlin Aging Study. Aging from 70 to 100, pp. 259–281.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Barker, D. J. P. (1992). Fetal and Infant Origins of Adult Disease. London: Britisch Medical
Carey, J. R. and D. S. Judge (2000). Mortality dynamics of aging. Generations - Journal of the
American Society on Aging 24(1), 19–24.
Carey, J. R. and P. Liedo (1995). Sex-specific life table aging rates in large medfly cohorts.
Experimental Gerontology 30(3/4), 315–325.
Carnes, B. A., S. J. Olshansky, and D. Grahn (1996). Continuing the search for a law of mortality.
Population and Development Review 22(2), 231–264.
Caselli, G., J. W. Vaupel, and A. I. Yashin (2000). Longevity, heterogeneity and selection. Paper
presented at the XL Riunione Scientifica della Societa Italianà di Statistica, Florence, April
Christensen, K., M. Kristiansen, H. Hagen-Larsen, A. Skytthe, L. Bathum, B. Jeune,
K. Andersen-Ranberg, J. W. Vaupel, and K. H. Orstavik (2000). X-linked genetic factors regulate
hematopoietic stem-cell kinetics in females. Blood 95(7), 2449–2451.
DeMoivre, A. (1725). Annuities on Lives: Or, the Valuation of Annuities Upon Any Number of
Lives; as also of Reversions. London.
Doblhammer, G. (1999). Longevity and month of birth: Evidence from Austria and Denmark. Demographic Research [Online] Available http://www.demographic-research.org/Volumes/Vol1/3 1(3).
Elo, I. T. and S. H. Preston (1992). Effects of early-life conditions on adult mortality: A review.
Population Index 58(2), 186–212.
Gavrilov, L. A. and N. S. Gavrilova (1991). The Biology of Life Span. A Quantitative Approach.
London: Harwood Academic Publishers.
Hazzard, W. R. (1986). Biological basis of the sex differential in longevity. Journal of the American
Geriatrics Society 34, 455–471.
Hazzard, W. R. and D. Applebaum-Bowden (1989). Why women live longer than men: The
biologic mechanism of the differential in longevity. Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association 101, 168–189.
Herskind, A. M., M. McGue, N. V. Holm, T. I. A. Sorensen, B. Harvald, and J. W. Vaupel (1996).
The heritability of human longevity: A population based study of 2872 Danish twin pairs born
1870–1900. Human Genetics 97(3), 319–323.
Horiuchi, S. (1983). The long-term impact of war on mortality: Old-age mortality of the First
World War survivors in the Federal Republic of Germany. Population Bulletin of the United Nations 15, 80–92.
Horiuchi, S. (1997). Postmenopausal acceleration of age-related mortality increase. Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences 52A(1), B78–B92.
Horiuchi, S. and A. J. Coale (1990). Age patterns of mortality for older women: An analysis using the age-specific rate of mortality change with age.
Mathematical Population Studies 2(4), 245–267.
House, J. S., R. C. Kessler, and A. R. e. Herzog (1990). Age, socioeconomic status, and health. The Milbank Quarterly 68(3), 383–411.
Hummer, R. A., R. G. Rogers, and I. W. Eberstein (1998). Sociodemographic differentials in
adult mortality: A review of analytic approaches. Population and Development Review 24(3),
Iachine, I., N. V. Holm, J. R. Harris, A. Z. Begun, M. K. Iachina, M. Laitinen, J. Kaprio, and A. I.
Yashin (1998). How heritable is individual susceptibility to death? The results of an analysis of
survival data on Danish, Swedish and Finnish twins. Twin Research 1(4), 196–205.
Keyfitz, N. and D. W. E. Smith (1977). Mathematical Demography: Selected Papers. Berlin:
Kohler, I. (2000a). Mortality dynamics in Bulgaria and Russia: Age, period and cohort approach.
Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles,
CA, March 23–25.
Kohler, I. (2000b). Structural changes in Bulgarian mortality and their socioeconomic
determinants. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America,
Los Angeles, CA, March 23–25.
Manton, K. G. and E. Stallard (1996). Longevity in the United States: Age and sex-specific evidence
on life span limits from mortality patterns 1960-1990. Journals of Gerontology Series A - Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 51(5), B362–B375.
Manton, K. G., M. A. Woodbury, and E. Stallard (1995). Sex differences in human mortality and
aging at late ages: the effect of mortality selection and state dynamics. The Gerontologist 35(5),
Manton, K. G. and A. I. Yashin (2000). Mechanisms of Aging and Mortality: The Search for New Paradigms. Odense: Monographs on Population Aging 7, Odense University Press.
McGue, M., J. W. Vaupel, N. V. Holm, and B. Harvald (1993). Longevity is moderately heritable in
a sample of Danish twins born 1870-1880. Journal of Gerontology, Biological Sciences 48(6),
Thatcher, A. R., V. Kannisto, and J. W. Vaupel (1998). The Force of Mortality at Ages 80 to 120.
Monographs on Population Aging 5, Odense University Press.
Vaupel, J. W., J. R. Carey, K. Christensen, T. E. Johnson, A. I. Yashin, N. V. Holm, I. A. Iachin,
V. Kannisto, A. A. Khazaeli, P. Liedo, V. D. Longo, Y. Zeng, K. G. Manton, and J. Curtsinger
(1998). Biodemographic trajectories of longevity. Science 280, 855–860.
Vaupel, J. W., K. G. Manton, and E. Stallard (1979). The impact of heterogeneity in individual frailty
on the dynamics of mortality. Demography 16(3), 439–454.
Vaupel, J. W. and A. I. Yashin (1985). Heterogeneity’s ruses: Some surprising effects of selection
on population dynamics. American Statistician 39, 176–185.
Waldron, I. (1985). What do we know about causes of sex differences in mortality? A review of
the literature. Population Bulletin U.N. (18), 59–76.
Wilmoth, J. R. (1997). In search of limits. In K. W. Wachter and C. E. Finch (Eds.), Between Zeus and the Salmon: The Biodemography of Longevity, pp. 38–64. Washington, D.C.: National
Wilmoth, J. R., L. J. Deegan, H. Lundström, and S. Horiuchi (2000). Increase of maximum life-span
in Sweden, 1861-1999. Science 289(5488), 2366–2368.
Wilmoth, J. R. and H. Lundström (1996). Extreme longevity in five countries. European Journal of Population 12, 63–93.
Yashin, A. I., J. W. Vaupel, and I. A. Iachine (1995). Correlated individual frailty: An advantageous
approach to survival analysis of bivariate data. Mathematical Population Studies 5(2), 145–59.
Zelterman, D. (1992). A statistical distribution with an unbounded hazard function and its
application to a theory from demography. Biometrics 48(3), 807–818.