Volume 19 - Article 18 | Pages 599-664

Hungary: Secular fertility decline with distinct period fluctuations

By Zsolt Spéder, Ferenc Kamarás

Print this page  Send this article to a friend  Twitter

 

 
Date received:01 Feb 2008
Date published:01 Jul 2008
Word count:23000
Keywords:childbearing, fertility, Hungary
DOI:10.4054/DemRes.2008.19.18
Weblink:You will find all publications in this Special Collection “Childbearing Trends and Policies in Europe” at http://www.demographic-research.org/special/7/
 

Abstract

In this study, we demonstrate from different angles that Hungarian fertility basically decreased between 1965 and 2005, but also clearly fluctuated, and showed different patterns in the different periods within this epoch. As a result, the clear communist-era family pattern of “early marriage and childbearing with two children” was replaced, but new family model(s) have not yet fully emerged. We could show that profound changes in partnership behaviour –divorce and cohabitation– started before the change of the political regime, but also that changes in partnership relations accelerated after 1990, and that partnerships have become more fragile. In addition, Western-style values of “empty individualism” and consumerism were clearly present under socialism, but their motivating force was tamed by the communist system, in which population policy played a significant role. Of these institutional changes, we ascribe the greatest importance to the expansion in the educational system and the changes in the labour market. We show that, following the changes in the economic system, the conflict between family and work intensified. The synchronic consideration of values, labour market relations, economic development, and population policy; and the relationship of these factors to fertility and nuptiality trends, enabled us to formulate a developmental scheme of four phases concerning the evolution of fertility since 1965.

Author's Affiliation

Zsolt Spéder - Demographic Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary [Email]
Ferenc Kamarás - Hungarian Central Statistical Office, Hungary [Email]

Other articles by the same author/authors in Demographic Research

» Generations and Gender Survey (GGS): Towards a Better Understanding of Relationships and Processes in the Life Course
Volume 17 - Article 14

» Rudiments of recent fertility decline in Hungary: Postponement, educational differences, and outcomes of changing partnership forms
Volume 15 - Article 8

Most recent similar articles in Demographic Research

» Does his paycheck also matter?: The socioeconomic resources of co-residential partners and entry into parenthood in Finland
Volume 28 - Article 31    | Keywords: childbearing, fertility

» The effect of education on second births in Hungary: A test of the time-squeeze, self-selection and partner-effect hypotheses
Volume 28 - Article 1    | Keywords: fertility, Hungary

» Understanding low fertility in Poland: Demographic consequences of gendered discrimination in employment and post-socialist neoliberal restructuring
Volume 21 - Article 20    | Keywords: childbearing, fertility

» Ukraine: On the border between old and new in uncertain times
Volume 19 - Article 29    | Keywords: childbearing, fertility

» Sweden: Combining childbearing and gender equality
Volume 19 - Article 28    | Keywords: childbearing, fertility

Articles

»Volume 19

 

Citations

 

 

Similar Articles

 

 

Jump to Article

Volume Page
Volume Article ID