Volume 20 - Article 5 | Pages 37-64

A systematic literature review of studies analyzing the effect of sex, age, education, marital status, obesity, and smoking on health transitions

By Gabriele Doblhammer, Rasmus Hoffmann, Elena Muth, Christina Westphal, Anne Kruse

Print this page  

 

References

Katz, S. and Akpom, C.A. (1976). Index of ADL. Medical Care XIV(5. Supplement): 116-118.

Weblink doi:10.1097/00005650-197605001-00018
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Aguero-Torres, H., Fratiglioni, L., Guo, Z., Viitanen, M., von Strauss, E., and Winblad, B. (1998). Dementia is the major cause of functional dependence in the elderly: 3-year follow-up data from a population-based study. American Journal of Public Health 88(10): 1452-1456.

Weblink doi:10.2105/AJPH.88.10.1452
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Armenian, H.K., Pratt, L.A., Gallo, J., and Eaton, W.W. (1998). Psychopathology as a predictor of disability: a population-based follow-up study in Baltimore, Maryland. American Journal of Epidemiology 148(3): 269-275.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Avlund, K., Damsgaard, M.T., and Osler, M. (2004). Social position and functional decline among non-disabled old men and women. European Journal of Public Health 14(2): 212-216.

Weblink doi:10.1093/eurpub/14.2.212
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Avlund, K., Damsgaard, M.T., Sakari-Rantala, R., Laukkanen, P., and Schroll, M. (2002). Tiredness in daily activities among nondisabled old people as determinant of onset disability. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 55: 965-973.

Weblink doi:10.1016/S0895-4356(02)00463-8
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Avlund, K., Lund, R., Holstein, B.E., Due, P., Sakari-Rantala, R., and Heikkinen, R.L. (2004). The impact of structural and functional characteristics of social relations as determinants of functional decline. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 59B(1): S44-S51.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Avlund, K., Pedersen, A.N., and Schroll, M. (2003). Functional decline from age 80 to 85: influence of preceding changes in tiredness in daily activities. Psychosomatic Medicine 65(5): 771-777.

Weblink doi:10.1097/01.PSY.0000082640.61645.BF
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Beckett , L., Brock, D., Lemke, J.H., Mendes de Leon, C.F., Guralnik, J.M., Fillenbaum, G.G., Branch, L.G., Wetle, T.T., and Evans, D.A. (1996). Analysis of change in self-reported physical function among older persons in four population studies. American Journal of Epidemiology 143(8): 766-778.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Béland, F. and Zunzunegui, M.V. (1999). Predictors of functional status in older people living at home. Age & Ageing 28(2): 153-159.

Weblink doi:10.1093/ageing/28.2.153
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Boult, C., Kane, R.L., Louis, T.A., Boult, L., and McCaffrey, D. (1994). Chronic conditions that lead to functional limitations in the elderly. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 49(1): M28-M36.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Boult, C., Murphy, J., Sloane, P., Mor, V., and Drone, C. (1991). The relation of dizziness to functional decline. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 39(9): 858-861.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Branch, L.G. (1985). Health practices and incident disability among the elderly. American Journal of Public Health 75(12): 1436-1439.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Brill, P.A., Macera, C.A., Davis, D.R., Blair, S.N., and Gordon, N. (2000). Muscular strength and physical function. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 32(2): 412-416.

Weblink doi:10.1097/00005768-200002000-00023
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Campbell, I. (2003). The obesity epidemic: can we turn the tide? Heart 89: 22-24.

Weblink doi:10.1136/heart.89.suppl_2.ii22
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Case, A. and Paxson, C. (2005). Sex differences in morbidity and mortality. Demography 42(2): 189-214.

Weblink doi:10.1353/dem.2005.0011
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Clark, D.O., Stump, T.E., Hui, S.L., and Wolinsky, F.D. (1998). Predictors of mobility and basic ADL difficulty among adults aged 70 years and older. Journal of Aging and Health 10(4): 422-440.

Weblink doi:10.1177/089826439801000402
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Clark, D.O., Stump, T.E., and Wolinsky, F.D. (1998). Predictors of onset of and recovery from mobility difficulty among adults aged 51-61 years. American Journal of Epidemiology 148(1): 63-71.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Crimmins, E.M., Hayward, M.D., and Saito, Y. (1996). Differentials in active life expectancy in the older population of the United States. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 51B(3): S111-S120.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Cronin-Stubbs, D., Mendes de Leon, C.F., Beckett, L.A., Field, T.S., Glynn, R.J., and Evans, D.A. (2000). Six-year effect of depressive symptoms on the course of physical disability in community-living older adults. Archives of Internal Medicine 160(20): 3074-3080.

Weblink doi:10.1001/archinte.160.20.3074
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Cutler, D.M., Glaeser, E.L., and Rosen, A. (2007). Is the Us Population Behaving Healthier? (NBER Working Paper).

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Diehr, P., Bild, D.E., Harris, T.B., Duxbury, A., Siscovick, D., and Rossi, M. (1998). Body mass index and mortality in nonsmoking older adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study. American Journal of Public Health 88(4): 623-629.

Weblink doi:10.2105/AJPH.88.4.623
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Doll, R., Peto, R., Boreham, J., and Sutherland, I. (2004). Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years' observations on male British doctors. British Medical Journal 58(11): 930.

Weblink doi:10.1136/bmj.38142.554479.AE
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Dunlop, D.D., Manheim, L.M., Sohn, M.W., Liu, X., and Chang, R.W. (2002). Incidence of functional limitation in older adults: The impact of gender , race and chronic conditions. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 83(7): 964-971.

Weblink doi:10.1053/apmr.2002.32817
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Elgar, F.J., Worrall, G., and Knight, J.C. (2002). Functional assessment of elderly clients of a rural community-based long-term care program: A 10-year cohort study. Canadian Journal on Aging 21(3): 455-463.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Elo, I.T. and Preston, S.H. (1996). Educational differentials in mortality - United States, 1979-85. Social Science and Medicine 42(1): 47-57.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Ferraro, K.F., Thorpe Jr, R.J., and Wilkinson, J.A. (2003). The life course of severe obesity: does childhood overweight matter? Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 58B(2): 110-119.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Ferrucci, L., Guralnik, J.M., Simonsick, E., Salive, M.E., Corti, C., and Langlois, J. (1996). Progressive versus catastrophic disability: A longitudinal view of the disablement process. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 51(3).

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Ferrucci, L., Harris, T.B., Guralnik, J.M., Tracy, R.P., Corti, M.C., Cohen, H.J., Penninx, P.M., Wallace, R., and Havlik, R. J. (1999). Serum IL-6 level and the development of disability in older persons. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 47(6): 639-646.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Flacker, J.M. and Kiely, D.K. (1998). A practical approach to identifying mortality-related factors in established long-term care residents. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 46(8): 1012-1015.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Flacker, J.M. and Kiely, D.K. (2003). Mortality-related factors and 1-year survival in nursing home residents. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 51: 213-221.

Weblink references
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Flegal, K.M. , Carroll, M.D., Kuczmarski, R.J., and Johnson, C.L. (1998). Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends 1960-1994. International Journal of Obesity 22: 39-47.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Fontaine, K.R., Redden, D.T., Wang, C., Westfall, A.O., and Allison, D.B. (2003). Years of life lost due to obesity. Journal of the American Medical Association 289(2): 187-193.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Freedman, V.A. and Martin, L.G. (1999). The role of education in explaining and forecasting trends in functional limitations among older Americans. Demography 36(4): 461-473.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Gill, T.M. and Kurland, B.F. (2003). Prognostic effect of prior disability episodes among nondisabled community-living older persons. American Journal of Epidemiology 158(11): 1090-1096.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Goldman, N., Korenman, S., and Weinstein, R. (1995). Marital status and health among the elderly. Social Science and Medicine 40(12): 1717-1730.

Weblink doi:10.1016/0277-9536(94)00281-W
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Greenberg, J.A. (2001). Biases in the mortality risk versus body mass index relationship in the NHANES-1 epidemiologic follow-up study. International Journal of Obesity 25: 1071-1078.

Weblink doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801648
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Grundy, E. and Glaser, K. (2000). Socio-demographic differences in the onset and progression of disability in early old age: A longitudinal study. Age and Ageing 29: 149-157.

Weblink doi:10.1093/ageing/29.2.149
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Grundy, E. and Sloggett, A. (2003). Health inequality in the older population: the role of personal capital, social resources and socio-economic circumstances. Social Science and Medicine 56: 935-947.

Weblink doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(02)00093-X
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Haga, H., Shibata, H., Ueno, M., Nagei, H., Suyama, Y., Matsuzaki, T., Yasumury, S., Koyano, W., and Hatano, S. (1991). Factors contributing to longitudinal changes in activities of daily living (ADL): The Koganei Study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology 6: 91-99.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Himes, C.L. (2000). Obesity, disease and functional limitation in later life. Demography 37(1): 73-82.

Weblink doi:10.2307/2648097
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Hoffmann, R. (2006). Socioeconomic differences in old age mortality in Denmark and the USA, with special emphasis on the impact of unobserved heterogeneity on the change of mortality differences over age. Dissertation, University of Rostock (forthcoming at Springers Publishers) .

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

House, J.S., Lepkowski, J.M., Kinney, A.M., Mero, R.P., Kessler, R.C., and Herzog, A.R. (1994). The social stratification of Aging and Health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 35(3): 213-234.

Weblink doi:10.2307/2137277
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Huang, Y., Macera, C.A., Blair, S.N., Brill, P.A., and Kohl, A.W. (1998). Physical fitness, physical activity and functional limitation in adults aged 40 and older. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 30(9): 1430-1435.

Weblink doi:10.1097/00005768-199809000-00013
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Huisman, M., Kunst, A., Degg, D., Grigoletto, F., Nusselder, W., and Mackenbach, J. (2005). Educational inequalities in the prevalence and incidence of disability in Italy and the Netherlands were observed. Journal of Epidemiology 58(10): 1058-1065.

Weblink doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2004.12.011
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Ishizaki, T., Kai, I., Kobayashi, Y., and Imanaka, Y. (2002). Functional transitions and active life expectancy for older Japanese living in a community. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 35(2): 107-120.

Weblink doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2004.12.011
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Ishizaki, T., Watanabe, S., Suzuki, T., Shibata, H., and Haga, H. (2000). Predictors for functional decline among nondisabled older Japanese living in a community during a 3-year follow-up. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 48(11): 1424-1429.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Jagger, C., Spiers, N.A., and Clarke, M. (1993). Factors associated with decline in function, institutionalization and mortality of elderly people. Age and Ageing 22: 190-197.

Weblink doi:10.1093/ageing/22.3.190
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Jensen, G.L. and Friedmann, J.M. (2002). Obesity is associated with functional decline in community-dwelling rural older persons. Journal of the American Geratrics Society 50(5): 912-917.

Weblink doi:10.1046/j.1532-5415.2002.50220.x
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Kaplan, Robert M. and Kronick, Richard G. (2006). Marital status and longevity in the United States population. J Epidemiol Community Health 60(9): 760-765.

Weblink http://jech.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/60/9/760
doi:10.1136/jech.2005.037606
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Katz, S., Downs, T.D., Cash, H.R., and Grotz, R.C. (1970). Progress in development of the index of ADL. The Gerontologist 10(1): 20-30.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Katz, S., Ford, A.B., Moskowitz, R.W., Jackson, B.A., and Jaffe, M.W. (1963). Studies of illness in the aged - The index of ADL: A standardized measure of biological and psychosocial function. Journal of the American Medical Association : 94-99.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Kivelä, S.L. and Pahkala, K. (2001). Depressive disorder as a predictor of physical disability in old age. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 49(3): 290-296.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

LaCroix, A.Z., Guralnik, J.M., Berkman, L.F., Wallace, R.B., and Satterfield, S. (1993). Maintaining mobility in later life II: Smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and body mass index. American Journal of Epidemiology 137(8): 858-869.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Lamarca, R., Ferrer, M., Andersen, P.K., Liestol, K., Keiding, N., and Alonso, J. (2003). A changing relationship between disability and survival in the elderly population: differences by age. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 56(12): 1192-1201.

Weblink http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ ...
doi:10.1016/S0895-4356(03)00201-4
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Launer, L.J., Harris, T., Rumpel, C., and Madans, J. (1994). Body mass index, weight change and risk of mobility disability in middle-aged and older women. Journal of the American Medical Association 271(14): 1093-1098.

Weblink doi:10.1001/jama.271.14.1093
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Lawton, M.P. and Brody, E.M. (1969). Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist 9(3): 179-186.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Leveille, S.G., Penninx, B.W., Melzer, D., Izmirlian, G., and Guralnik, J.M. (2000). Sex differences in the prevalence of mobility disability in old age: The dynamics of incidence, recovery and mortality. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 55B(1): S41-S50.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Leveille, S.G., Resnick, H.E., and Balfour, J. (2000). Gender differences in disability: Evidence and underlying reasons. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research 12(2): 106-112.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Liu, X., Liang, J., Muramatsu, N., and Sugisawa, H. (1995). Transitions in functional status and active life expectancy among older people in Japan. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 50(6): S383-S394.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Losonczy, K.G., Harris, T.B., Cornoni, H.J., Simonsick, E.M., Wallace, R.B., Cook, N.R., Ostfeld, A.M., and Blazer, D.G. (1995). Does weight loss from middle age to old age explain the inverse weight mortality relation in old age? American Journal of Epidemiology 141(3): 312-321.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Maddox, G.L., Clark, D.O., and Steinhouser, K. (1994). Dynamics of functional impairment in late adulthood. Social Science and Medicine 38(7): 925-936.

Weblink doi:10.1016/0277-9536(94)90425-1
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Manton, K.G., Stallard, E., and Corder, L.S. (1997). Changes in the age dependence of mortality and disability: Cohort and other determinants. Demography 34(1): 135-157.

Weblink doi:10.2307/2061664
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Manton, K.G. (1988). A Longitudinal study of functional change and mortality in the United States. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 43(5): S153-161.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Matthews, R.J., Smith, L.K., Hancock, R.M., Jagger, C., and Spiers, N.A. (2005). Socioeconomic factors associated with the onset of disability in older age: A longitudinal study of people aged 75 years and over. Social Science and Medicine 61(7): 1567-1575.

Weblink doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.02.007
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

McCurry, S.M., Gibbons, L.E., Bond, G.E., Rice, M.M., Graves, A.B., Kukull, W.A., Teri, L., Higdon, R., Bowen, J.D., McCormick, W.C., and Larson, E.B. (2002). Older adults and functional decline: A cross-cultural comparison. International Psychogeriatrics 14(2): 161-179.

Weblink doi:10.1017/S1041610202008360
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Melzer, D., Izmirlian, G., Leveille, S.G., and Guralnik, J.M. (2001). Educational differences in the prevalence of mobility disability in old age: the dynamics of incidence, mortality and recovery. Journal of Gerontology 56B(5): S294-S301.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Menchik, P.L. (1993). Economic status as a determinant of mortality among black and white and older men: does poverty kill? Population Studies 47: 427-436.

Weblink doi:10.1080/0032472031000147226
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Mendes de Leon, C.F.M., Beckett, L.A., Fillenbaum, G.G., Brock, D.B., Branch, L.G., Evans, D.A., and Berkman, L.F. (1997). Black-white differences in risk of becoming disabled and recovering from disability in old age: A longitudinal analysis of two EPESE populations. American Journal of Epidemiology 145(6): 488-497.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Minicuci, N. and Noale, M. (2005). Influence of level of education on disability free life expectancy by sex: The ILSA Study. Experimental Gerontology 40: 997-1003.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Mitra, M., Chung, M.C., Wilber, N., and Klein Walker, D. (2004). Smoking status and quality of life - A longitudinal study among adults with disabilities. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 27(3): 258-260.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Mor, V., Murphy, J., Masterson-Allen, S., Willey, C., Razmpour, A., Jackson, M.E., Greer, D., and Katz, S. (1989). Risk of functional decline among well elders. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 42(8): 895-904.

Weblink doi:10.1016/0895-4356(89)90103-0
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Moritz, D.J., Kasl, S.V., and Berkman, L.F. (1995). Cognitive functioning and the incidence of limitations in activities of daily living in an elderly community sample. American Journal of Epidemiology 141(1): 41-49.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Nagi, S.Z. (1976). An epidemiology of disability among adults in the United States. The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly: Health and Society 54(4): 439-467.

Weblink doi:10.2307/3349677
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Nathanson, C.A. (1977). Sex, illness, and medical care. A review of data, theorie, and method. Social Science & Medicine 11: 13-25.

Weblink doi:10.1016/0037-7856(77)90141-X
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Nusselder, W.J., Looman, C.W.N., Marang-van de Mheen, P.J., van de Mheen, H., and Mackenbach, J.P. (2000). Smoking and the compression of morbidity. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 54: 566-574.

Weblink doi:10.1136/jech.54.8.566
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Oman, D., Reed, D., and Ferrara, A. (1999). Do elderly women have more physical disability than men do? American Journal of Epidemiology 150(8): 834-842.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Ostbye, T., Taylor, D.H., and Jung, S.H. (2002). A longitudinal study of the effects of tobacco smoking and other modifiable risk factors on ill health in middle-aged and old americans: Results from the Health and Retirement Study and Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old survey. Preventive Medicine 34(3): 334-345.

Weblink http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ ...
doi:10.1006/pmed.2001.0991
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Penninx, B.W., Guralnik, J.M., Onder, G., Ferrucci, L., Wallace, R.B., and Pahor, M. (2003). Anemia and decline in physical performance among older persons. American Journal of Medicine 115(2): 104-110.

Weblink doi:10.1016/S0002-9343(03)00263-8
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Penninx, B.W., Leveille, S., Ferrucci, L., van Eijk, J.T., and Guralnik, J.M. (1999). Exploring the effect of depression on physical disability: Longitudinal evidence from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. American Journal of Public Health 89(9): 1346-1352.

Weblink doi:10.2105/AJPH.89.9.1346
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Péres, K., Verret, C., Alioum, A., and Barberger-Gateau, P. (2005). The disablement process: Factors associated with progression of disability and recovery in French elderly people. Disability and Rehabilitation 27(5): 263-276.

Weblink doi:10.1080/09638280400006515
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Porock, D., Oliver, D.P., Zweig, S., Rantz, M., Mehr, D., Madsen, R., and Petroski, G. (2005). Predicting death in the nursing home: development and validation of the 6-month Minimum Data Set mortality risk index. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 60 A(4): 491-498.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Reynolds, S.L. and Silverstein, M. (2003). Observing the onset of disability in older adults. Social Science and Medicine 57(10): 1875-1889.

Weblink doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00053-4
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Romoren, T.I. and Blekeseaune, M. (2003). Trajectories of disability among the oldest old. Journal of Aging and Health 15(3): 548-566.

Weblink doi:10.1177/0898264303253633
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Rosow, I. and Breslau, N. (1966). A Guttman Health Scale for the aged. Journals of Gerontology 21: 556-559.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Sarkisian, C.A., Liu, H., Ensrud, K.E., Stone, K.L., and Mangione, C.M. (2001). Correlates of attributing new disability to old age. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 49(2): 134-141.

Weblink doi:10.1046/j.1532-5415.2001.49033.x
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Sauvaget, C., Tsuji, I., Aonuma, T., and Hisamichi, S. (1999). Health-life expectancy according to various functional levels. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 47(11): 1326-1331.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Sauvel, C., Barberger-Gateau, P., Dequae, L., Letenneur, L., and Dartigues, J.F. (1994). Facteurs associés a l'évolution a un an de l'autonomie fonctionelle des personnes âgées vivant a leur domicile. Factors associated with one-year change in functional status of elderly community dwellers. Revue d'Épidémiologie et Santé Publique 42: 13-23.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Schrijvers, C.T.M., Stronks, K., van de Mheen, H.D., and Mackenbach, J.P. (1999). Explaining educational differences in mortality: The role of behavioral and material factors. American Journal of Public Health 89(4): 535-540.

Weblink doi:10.2105/AJPH.89.4.535
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Seeman, T.E., Bruce, M.L., and McAvay, G.J. (1996). Social network characteristics and onset of ADL disability: Mac Arthur Studies of Successful Aging. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 51(4): S191-S200.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Smith, J.P. and Kington, R. (1997). Race, socioeconomic status, and health in late life. In: Martin, L.G. and Soldo, B.J. (eds.). Racial and ethnic differences in the health of older Americans. Washington, DC: National Academy Press: 105-162.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Sternfeld, B., Ngo, L., Satariano, W.A., and Tager, I.B. (2002). Associations of body composition with physical performance and self-reported functional limitation in elderly men and women. American Journal of Epidemiology 156(2): 110-121.

Weblink doi:10.1093/aje/kwf023
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Strawbridge, W.J., Kaplan, G.A., Camacho, T., and Cohen, R.D. (1992). The dynamics of disability and functional change in an elderly cohort: results from the Alameda County Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 40: 799-806.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Stuck, A.E., Walthert, J.M., Nikolaus, T., Bula, C.J., Hohmann, C., and Beck, J.C. (1999). Risk factors for functional status decline in community-living elderly people: a systematic literature review. Social Science & Medicine 48(4): 445-469.

Weblink http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ ...
doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(98)00370-0
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Thatcher, A.R., Kannisto, V., and Vaupel, J. W. (1998). The Force of Mortality at Ages 80 to 120. Odense Monographs on Population Aging 5.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

van Dijk, P.T., Mehr, D.R., Ooms, M.E., Madsen, R., Petroski, G., Frijters, D.H., Pot, A.M., and Ribbe, M.W. (2005). Comorbidity and 1-year mortality risk in nursing home residents. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 53(4): 660-665.

Weblink doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53216.x
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Vaupel, J.W. (1998). Demographic analysis of aging and longevity. American Economic Review 88(2): 242-247.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Verbrugge, L.M. and Jette, A.M. (1994). The disablement process. Social Sciences and Medicine 38(1): 1-14.

Weblink doi:10.1016/0277-9536(94)90294-1
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Waldron, I., Weiss, C.C., and Hughes, M.E. (1997). Marital status effects on health: Are there differences between never married women and divorced and seperated women? Social Science and Medicine 45(9): 1387-1397.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Wannamethee, S.G., Ebrahim, S., Papacosta, O., and Shaper, A.G. (2005). From a postal questionnaire of older men: Healthy lifestyle factors reduced the onset of and may have increased recovery from mobility limitation. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 58(8): 831-840.

Weblink doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2005.01.007
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Ward, M.M. and Leigh, J.P. (1993). Marital status and the progression of functional disability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 36(5): 581-588.

Weblink doi:10.1002/art.1780360502
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Wolff, J.L., Boult, C., Boyd, C., and Anderson, G. (2005). Newly reported chronic conditions and onset of functional dependency. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 53(5): 851-855.

Weblink doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53262.x
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Zimmer, Z. and House, J.S. (2003). Education, income, and functional limitation transitions among American adults: contrasting onset and progression. International journal of epidemiology 32(6): 1089-1097.

Weblink http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abs ...
doi:10.1093/ije/dyg254
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX