Volume 14 - Article 10 | Pages 179–216  

Race/Ethnic differences and age-variation in the effects of birth outcomes on infant mortality in the U.S.

By Daniel A. Powers, W. Parker Frisbie, Robert A. Hummer, Starling G. Pullum, Patricio Solis

References

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Albrecht, S.L., Clarke, L.L., Miller, M.K., and Farmer, F.L. (1996). Predictors of Differential Birth Outcomes among Hispanic Subgroups in the United States: The Role of Maternal Risk Characteristics and Medical Care. Social Science Quarterly 77(2): 407-433.

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Alexander, G.R., Kogan, M.D., Bader, D., Carlo, W., Allen, M.C., and Mor, J. (2003). US Birth Weight/Gestational Age-Specific Neonatal Mortality: 1995-1997 Rates for White, Hispanics, and Blacks. Pediatrics 111(1): 61-66.

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Alexander, G.R., Kogan, M.D., and Himes, J.H. (1999a). 1994-1996 U.S. Singleton Birth Weight Percentiles for Age by Race, Hispanic Origin, and Gender. Maternal and Child Health Journal 3(4): 225-232.

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Alexander, G.R., Tompkins, M.E., Allen, M.C. , and Hulsey, T.C. (1999b). Trends and Racial Differences in Birth Weight and Related Survival. Maternal and Child Health Journal 3(2): 71-79.

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Allen, M.C., Alexander, G.R., Tompkins, M.E. , and Hulsey, T.C. (2000). Racial differences in temporal changes in newborn viability and survival by gestational age. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 14(2): 152-158.

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Battaglia, F.C. and Lubchenco, L.O. (1967). A Practical Classification of Newborn Infants by Weight and Gestational Age. Journal of Pediatrics 71(2): 159-163.

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Becerra, J.E., Hogue, C.J.R., Atrash, H., and Pérez, N. (1991). Infant mortality among Hispanics: A Portrait of Heterogeneity. Journal of the American Medical Association 265: 217-221.

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Buehler, J.W., Kleinman, J.C., Hogue, C.J., Strauss, L.T., and Smith, J.C. (1987). Birth Weight-Specific Infant Mortality, United States, 1960-1970. Public Health Reports 102: 151-161.

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Chung, C.S. (1967). Birthweight. In: Morton, N.E., Chung, C.S., and Mi, M.P. (eds.). Genetics of Interracial Crosses in Hawaii. Basel: Karger: 92.

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Cobas, J.A., Balcazar, H., Benin, M., Keith, V.M., and Chong, Y. (1996). Acculturation and Low-Birthweight Infants among Latino Women: A Reanalysis of HHANES Data with Structural Equation Models. American Journal of Public Health 86(3): 394-396.

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Cramer, J.C. (1987). Social Factors and Infant Mortality: Identifying High-Risk Groups and Proximate Causes. Demography 24(3): 299-322.

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David, R. (2001). Commentary: Birthweights and Bell Curves. International Journal of Epidmiology 30(6): 1241-1243.

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Eberstein, I.W., Nam, C.B. , and Hummer, R.A. (1990). Infant Mortality by Cause of Death: Main and Interaction Effects. Demography 27(3): 413-430.

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Echeverria-Cruz, S. (2004). U.S. Models of Infant Mortality by Race/Ethnicity: One Size Fits All? Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Boston, MA.

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Frisbie, W.P. (2005). Infant Mortality. In: Poston Jr., D.L. and Micklin, M. (eds.). Handbook of Population. New York: Kluwer/Plenum/Springer: 251-282.

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Frisbie, W.P., Biegler, M., de Turk, P.B., Forbes, D., and Pullum, S.G. (1997). Racial and Ethnic Differences in Determinants of Intrauterine Growth Retardation and Other Compromised Birth Outcomes. American Journal of Public Health 87(12): 1977-1983.

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Frisbie, W.P., Forbes, D., and Hummer, R.A. (1998). Hispanic Pregnancy Outcomes: Additional Evidence. Social Science Quarterly 79(1): 149-169.

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Frisbie, W.P., Forbes, D., and Pullum, S.G. (1996). Compromised Birth Outcomes and Infant Mortality among Racial and Ethnic Groups. Demography 33(4): 469-481.

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Frisbie, W.P. and Song, S.E. (2003). Hispanic Pregnancy Outcomes: Differentials over Time and Current Risk Factor Effects. Policy Studies Journal 31(2): 237-252.

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Gage, T.B., Bauer, M.J., Heffner, N., and Stratton, H. (2004). Pediatric Paradox: Heterogeneity in the Birth Cohort. Human Biology 76(3): 327-342.

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Gortmaker, S.L. and Wise, P.H. (1997). The First Injustice: Socioeconomic Disparities, Health Services Technology, and Infant Mortality. Annual Review of Sociology 23(1): 147-170.

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Guendelman, S. and Abrams, B. (1995). Dietary Intake among Mexican-American Women: Generational Differences and a Comparison with White Non-Hispanic Women. American Journal of Public Health 85(1): 20-25.

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Guyer, B., MacDorman, M.F., Martin, J.A., Peters, K.D., and Strobino, D.M. (1998). Annual Summary of Vital Statistics-1997. Pediatrics 102(6): 1333-1349.

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Hack, M., Klein, N.K., and Taylor, H.G. (1995). Long-Term Developmental Outcomes of Low Birth Weight Infants. The Future of Children 5(1): 176-196.

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Hertz-Picciotto, I. (2001). Commentary: When Brilliant Insights Lead Astray. International Journal of Epidemiology 30(6): 1243-1244.

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Hertz-Picciotto, I. and Din-Dzietham, R. (1998). Comparisons of Infant Mortality Using a Percentile-Based Method of Standardization for Birthweight or Gestational Age. Epidemiology 9(1): 67-68.

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Hoyert, D.L., Arias, E., Smith, B.L., Murphy, S.L., and Kochanek, K.D. (2001). Deaths: Final Data for 1999. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics Reports (49, No 8).

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Hummer, R.A. (1996). Black-White Differences in Health and Mortality. The Sociological Quarterly 37(1): 105-125.

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Hummer, R.A. (1993). Racial Differentials in Infant Mortality in the U.S.: An Examination of Social and Health Determinants. Social Forces 72(2): 529-554.

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Hummer, R.A., Biegler, M., de Turk, P.B., Forbes, D., Frisbie, W.P., Hong, Y., and Pullum, S.G. (1999). Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Infant Mortality in the United States. Social Forces 77(3): 1083-1118.

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Hummer, R.A., Schmertmann, C.P., Eberstein, I.W., and Kelly, S. (1995). Retrospective Reports of Pregnancy Wantedness and Birth Outcomes in the United States. Social Science Quarterly 76: 402-418.

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Kallan, J.E. (1993). Race, Intervening Variables, and Two Components of Low Birth Weight. Demography 30(3): 489-506.

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Kiely, J. and Susser, M. (1992). Preterm Birth, Intrauterine Growth Retardation, and Perinatal Mortality. American Journal of Public Health 82(3): 343-345.

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Kramer, M.S., McLean, F.H., Boyd, M.E., and Usher, R.H. (1988). The Validity of Gestational Age Estimation by Menstrual Dating in Term, Preterm, and Postterm Gestations. Journal of the American Medical Association 260: 3306-3308.

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Kramer, M.S., McLean, F.H., Olivier, M., Willis, D.M., and Usher, R.H. (1989). Body Proportionality and Head and Length ‘Sparing’ in Growth-Retarded Neonates: A Critical Reappraisal. Pediatrics 84: 717-723.

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Laird, N. and Olivier, D. (1981). Covariance Analysis of Censored Survival Data Using Log-linear Analysis Techniques. Journal of the American Statistical Association 76(374): 231-240.

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Mathews, T.J., Menacker, F., and MacDorman, M.F. (2002). Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2000 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics Reports (50, No 12).

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McCormick, M.C. (1985). The Contribution of Low Birth Weight to Infant Mortality and Childhood Mortality. New England Journal of Medicine 312: 82-90.

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Minono, A.M., Arias, E., Kochanek, K.D., Murphy, S.L., and Smith, B.L. (2002). Deaths: Final Report Data for 2000. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics Reports (50, No 15).

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Myers, S.A. and Ferguson, S. (1989). A Population Study of the Relationship between Fetal Death and Altered Fetal Growth. Obstetrics and Gynecology 74: 325-331.

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Palloni, A. and Morenoff, J.D. (2001). Interpreting the Paradoxical in the Hispanic Paradox. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 954: 140-174.

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Platt, R.W., Ananth, C.V., and Kramer, M.S. (2004a). Analysis of Neonatal Mortality: Is Standardizing for Relative Birth Weight Biased? BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 4: 9.

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Platt, R.W., Joseph, K.S., Ananth, C.C., Gondines, J., Abramowicz, M., and Kramer, M.S. (2004b). A Proportional Hazards Model with Time-Dependent Covariates and Time-Varying Effects for Analysis of Fetal and Infant Death. American Journal of Epidemiology 160(3): 199-206.

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Preston, S.H., Heuveline, P., and Guillot, M. (2001). Demography: Measuring and Modeling Population Processes. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.

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Rumbaut, R. and Weeks, J.R. (1991). Perinatal Risks and Outcomes among Low Income Immigrant. Rockville: DHHS, Final Report for the Maternal and Child Health Research Program.

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Rumbaut, R.G. and Weeks, J.R. (1996). Unraveling a Public Health Enigma: Why Do Immigrants Experience Superior Perinatal Health Outcomes? Research in the Sociology of Health Care 13b: 337-391.

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Scribner, R. (1996). Editorial: Paradox as Paradigm - The Health Outcomes of Mexican Americans. American Journal of Public Health 86(3): 303-305.

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Scribner, R. and Dwyer, J.H. (1989). Acculturation and Low Birth Weight among Latinos in the Hispanic HANES. American Journal of Public Health 79(9): 1263-1267.

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Solis, P., Pullum, S.G., and Frisbie, W.P. (2000). Demographic Models of Birth Outcomes and Infant Morality: An Alternative Measurement Approach. Demography 37(4): 489-498.

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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1995). Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set: 1989 Cohort. Hyattsville: National Center for Health Statistics, Public Use Data File Documentation.

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Wilcox, A.J. (2003). Commentary: On the Paradoxes of Birthweight. International Journal of Epidemiology 32(4): 632-633.

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Wilcox, A.J. (2001a). On the Importance – and the Unimportance – of Birthweight. International Journal of Epidemiology 30(6): 1233-1241.

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Wilcox, A.J. (2001b). Response: Where Do We Go from Here. International Journal of Epidemiology 30(6): 1245.

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Wilcox, A.J. and Russell, I.T. (1983). Birthweight and Perinatal Mortality: II. On Weight-Specific Mortality. International Journal of Epidemiology 12(3): 319-325.

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Wilcox, A.J. and Russell, I.T. (1986). Birthweight and Perinatal Mortality: III. Towards a New Method of Analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology 15(2): 188-196.

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Wilcox, A.J. and Russell, I.T. (1990). Why Small Black Infants Have a Lower Mortality Rate than Small White Infants: The Case for Population-Specific Standards for Birth Weight. Journal of Pediatrics 116(1): 7-10.

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Wilcox, A.J. and Skjoerven, R. (1992). Birth Weight and Perinatal Mortality: The Effect of Gestational Age. American Journal of Public Health 82(3): 378-382.

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Wilcox, A.J. and Weinberg, C.R. (2004). Invited Commentary: Analysis of Gestational-Age-Specific Mortality -- On What Biologic Foundations? American Journal of Epidemiology 160(3): 213-214.

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Wise, P.H. (2003). The Anatomy of a Disparity in Infant Mortality. Annual Review of Public Health 24: 341-362.

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Yerushalmy, J. (1967). The Classification of Newborn Infants by Birth Weight and Gestational Age. Journal of Pediatrics 71(2): 164-172.

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