Volume 15 - Article 1 | Pages 1–20  

A simulation-based assessment of the bias produced when using averages from small DHS clusters as contextual variables in multilevel models

By Øystein Kravdal

References

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DeRose, L.F. and Kravdal, Ø. (2006). Educational reversals and first-birth timing in sub-Saharan Africa: A dynamic multilevel perspective. Demography 44(1): 59-77.

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Goldstein, H. (1995). Multilevel Statistical Models. London: Arnold (Second Edition).

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Greene, W.H. (2003). Econometric analysis, 5th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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Kravdal, Ø. (2002). Education and fertility in sub-Saharan Africa: Individual and community effects. Demography 39(2): 233-250.

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Macro International Inc. (1996). Sampling manual. Calverton, Maryland (DHS-III Basic Documentation No. 6).

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Montgomery, M.R. and Casterline, J.B. (1996). Social learning, social influence, and new models of fertility. Population and Development Review 22(suppl): 151-175.

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Montgomery, M.R. and Hewett, P.C. (2005). Urban poverty and health in developing countries: Household and neighborhood effects. Demography 42(3): 397-425.

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Sampson, R.J., Raudenbush, S.W., and Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science 277(5328): 918-924.

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