Volume 19 - Article 60 | Pages 2011–2042  

Educational differences in all-cause mortality by marital status: Evidence from Bulgaria, Finland and the United States

By Iliana Kohler, Pekka Martikainen, Kirsten P. Smith, Irma T. Elo


Using life table measures, we compare educational differentials in all-cause mortality at ages 40 to 70 in Bulgaria to those in Finland and the United States. Specifically, we assess whether the relationship between education and mortality is modified by marital status. Although high education and being married are associated with lower mortality in all three countries, absolute educational differences tend to be smaller among married than unmarried individuals. Absolute differentials by education are largest for Bulgarian men, but in relative terms educational differences are smaller among Bulgarian men than in Finland and the U.S. Among women, Americans experience the largest education-mortality gradients in both relative and absolute terms. Our results indicate a particular need to tackle health hazards among poorly educated men in countries in transition.

Author's Affiliation

Other articles by the same author/authors in Demographic Research

Contribution of smoking-attributable mortality to life-expectancy differences by marital status among Finnish men and women, 1971-2010
Volume 36 - Article 8

Immigrant mortality advantage in the United States during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic
Volume 50 - Article 7

Marital dissolutions and changes in mental health: Evidence from rural Malawi
Volume 44 - Article 41

The role of smoking on mortality compression: An analysis of Finnish occupational social classes, 1971-2010
Volume 32 - Article 20

Age patterns of racial/ethnic/nativity differences in disability and physical functioning in the United States
Volume 31 - Article 17

Age-specific fertility by educational level in the Finnish male cohort born 1940‒1950
Volume 31 - Article 5

Intergenerational Transfers in the Era of HIV/AIDS: Evidence from Rural Malawi
Volume 27 - Article 27

The effects of socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of regions on the spatial patterns of the Second Demographic Transition in Finland
Volume 19 - Article 61

Comparative mortality levels among selected species of captive animals
Volume 15 - Article 14

Cause-specific contributions to sex differences in adult mortality among whites and African Americans between 1960 and 1995
Volume 13 - Article 19

Integrated Information System for Demographic Statistics 'ESGRAON-TDS' in Bulgaria
Volume 6 - Article 12

Frailty Modelling for Adult and Old Age Mortality: The Application of a Modified DeMoivre Hazard Function to Sex Differentials in Mortality
Volume 3 - Article 8

Increasing excess mortality among non-married elderly people in developed countries
Special Collection 2 - Article 12

Cause-specific contributions to black-white differences in male mortality from 1960 to 1995
Special Collection 2 - Article 10

Why are they worried? Concern about AIDS in rural Malawi
Special Collection 1 - Article 9

Most recent similar articles in Demographic Research

Early life exposure to cigarette smoking and adult and old-age male mortality: Evidence from linked US full-count census and mortality data
Volume 49 - Article 25    | Keywords: linked census and mortality data, linked census data, smoking, United States of America

A register-based account of period trends in union prevalence, entries, and exits by educational level for men and women in Finland
Volume 48 - Article 14    | Keywords: cohabitation, divorce, education, Finland, marriage, register data, trends, union dissolution

Investigating the application of generalized additive models to discrete-time event history analysis for birth events
Volume 47 - Article 22    | Keywords: discrete-time event history, educational differentials, fertility, general additive models, parity progression, period fertility, postponement of childbearing, retrospective histories, time since last birth, United Kingdom

Female sterilization in the life course: Understanding trends and differentials in early sterilization
Volume 47 - Article 18    | Keywords: contraception, female sterilization, fertility, inequality, reproduction, sterilization regret, United States of America

Berkeley Unified Numident Mortality Database: Public administrative records for individual-level mortality research
Volume 47 - Article 5    | Keywords: administrative data, mortality, statistical methodology, United States of America