Volume 47 - Article 9 | Pages 233–246  

Life expectancy loss among Native Americans during the COVID-19 pandemic

By Noreen Goldman, Theresa Andrasfay

References

Akee, R. and Reber, S. (2021). American Indians and Alaska Natives are dying of COVID-19 at shocking rates. Washington, D.C: The Brookings Institution.

Andrasfay, T. and Goldman, N. (2021). Association of the COVID-19 pandemic with estimated life expectancy by race/ethnicity in the United States, 2020. JAMA Network Open 4(6): e2114520–e2114520.

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Andrasfay, T. and Goldman, N. (2021). Reductions in 2020 US life expectancy due to COVID-19 and the disproportionate impact on the Black and Latino populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 118(5): e2014746118.

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Andrasfay, T. and Goldman, N. (2022). Reductions in US life expectancy from COVID-19 by race and ethnicity: Is 2021 a repetition of 2020? MedRXiv pre-print.

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Arias, E., Betzaida, T.V., Ahmad, F., and Kochanek, K. (2021). Provisional life expectancy estimates for 2020. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.), NVSS vital statistics rapid release report 015.

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Arias, E. and Xu, J. (2022). United States Life Tables, 2019. National Vital Statistics Reports 70(18).

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Arias, E., Xu, J., Curtin, S., Bastian, B., and Tejada-Vera, B. (2021). Mortality profile of the non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native population, 2019. National Vital Statistics Reports 70(12): 1–27.

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CDC Wonder (2022). Provisional Mortality on CDC WONDER Online Database [electronic resource].

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2022). COVID-19 Cases, Deaths, and Trends in the US | CDC COVID Data Tracker [electronic resource].

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Espey, D.K., Jim, M.A., Richards, T.B., Begay, C., Haverkamp, D., and Roberts, D. (2014). Methods for improving the quality and completeness of mortality data for American Indians and Alaska Natives. American Journal of Public Health 104(S3): 286–294.

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Feldman, J.M. and Bassett, M.T. (2021). Variation in COVID-19 mortality in the US by race and ethnicity and educational attainment. JAMA Network Open 4(11): e2135967.

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Foxworth, R., Redvers, N., Moreno, M.A., Lopez-Carmen, V.A., Sanchez, G.R., and Shultz, J.M. (2021). Covid-19 vaccination in American Indians and Alaska Natives — lessons from effective community responses. New England Journal of Medicine 385(26): 2403–2406.

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Friedman, J. R. and Hansen, H. (2022). Evaluation of increases in drug overdose mortality rates in the US by race and ethnicity before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. JAMA Psychiatry 79(4): 379–381.

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Hedegaard, H., Miniño, A.M., Spencer, M.R., and Warner, M. (2021). Drug overdose deaths in the United States, 1999–2020. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.), NCHS data brief.

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Indian Health Service (2021). Biden Administration Invests Additional $1.8 Billion in American Rescue Plan Funding to Combat COVID-19 in Indian Country. Indian Health Service. Indian Health Service Press Release.

Indian Health Service (2022). Coronavirus | Indian Health Service (IHS. Rockville, MD: Indian Health Service.

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Jim, M.A., Arias, E., Seneca, D.S., Hoopes, M.J., Jim, C.C., Johnson, N.J., and Wiggins, C.L. (2014). Racial misclassification of American Indians and Alaska Natives by Indian Health Service Contract Health Service Delivery Area. American Journal of Public Health 104(S3): S295–S302.

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Kalkhoran, S.M., Levy, D.E., and Rigotti, N.A. (2021). Smoking and e-cigarette use among U.S. adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 62(3): 341–349.

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Kupferschmidt, K. and Wadman, M. (2021). Delta variant triggers new phase in the pandemic. Science 372(6549): 1375–1376.

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Leggat-Barr, K., Uchikoshi, F., and Goldman, N. (2021). COVID-19 risk factors and mortality among Native Americans. Demographic Research 45(39): 1185–1218.

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Ndugga, N., Pham, O., Hill, L., Artiga, S., and Parker, N. (2021). Latest data on COVID-19 vaccinations by race/ethnicity. San Francisco, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation.

Population Reference Bureau (2020). World Population Data Sheet. Washington, D.C: Population Reference Bureau.

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Preston, S., Heuveline, P., and Guillot, M. (2000). Demography: Measuring and modeling population processes. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

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Rio, C., Omer, S.B., and Malani, P.N. (2021). Winter of Omicron—The evolving COVID-19 pandemic. JAMA 327(4): 319–320.

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Silberner, J. (2021). Covid-19: How Native Americans led the way in the US vaccination effort. BMJ 374: n2168.

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Woolf, S.H., Masters, R.K., and Aron, L.Y. (2021). Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 on life expectancy across populations in the USA and other high income countries: Simulations of provisional mortality data. BMJ 373: n1343.

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Zhang, X., Oluyomi, A., Woodard, L., Raza, S.A., Adel Fahmideh, M., El-Mubasher, O., Byun, J., Han, Y., Amos, C.I., and Badr, H. (2021). Individual-level determinants of lifestyle behavioral changes during COVID-19 lockdown in the United States: Results of an online survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18(8): 4364.

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