Volume 29 - Article 30 | Pages 817–836

All tied up: Tied staying and tied migration within the United States, 1997 to 2007

By Thomas J. Cooke

Print this page  Facebook  Twitter


Date received:01 Mar 2013
Date published:15 Oct 2013
Word count:5017
Keywords:family, family migration, internal migration, methods, migration, tied migration, tied staying


Background: The family migration literature presumes that women are cast into the role of the tied migrant. However, clearly identifying tied migrants is a difficult empirical task since it requires the identification of a counterfactual: Who moved but did not want to?

Objective: This research develops a unique methodology to directly identify both tied migrants and tied stayers in order to investigate their frequency and determinants.

Methods: Using data from the 1997 through 2009 U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), propensity score matching is used to match married individuals with comparable single individuals to create counterfactual migration behaviors: who moved but would not have moved had they been single (tied migrants) and who did not move but would have moved had they been single (tied stayers).

Results: Tied migration is relatively rare and not limited just to women: rates of tied migration are similar for men and women. However, tied staying is both more common than tied migration and equally experienced by men and women. Consistent with the body of empirical evidence, an analysis of the determinants of tied migration and tied staying demonstrates that family migration decisions are imbued with gender.

Conclusions: Additional research is warranted to validate the unique methodology developed in this paper and to confirm its results. One line of future research should be to examine the effects of tied staying, along with tied migration, on well-being, union stability, employment, and earnings.

Author's Affiliation

Thomas J. Cooke - University of Connecticut, United States of America [Email]

Other articles by the same author/authors in Demographic Research

» Union dissolution and migration
Volume 34 - Article 26

Most recent similar articles in Demographic Research

» Determinants and consequences of internal and international migration: The case of rural populations in the south of Veracruz, Mexico
Volume 16 - Article 10    | Keywords: family, internal migration, migration

» Distinguishing tempo and ageing effects in migration
Volume 40 - Article 44    | Keywords: internal migration, migration

» Contemporary female migration in Ghana: Analyses of the 2000 and 2010 Censuses
Volume 39 - Article 44    | Keywords: internal migration, migration

» Educational selectivity of internal migrants: A global assessment
Volume 39 - Article 29    | Keywords: internal migration, migration

» Collecting data from migrants in Ghana: Lessons learned using respondent-driven sampling
Volume 38 - Article 36    | Keywords: internal migration, migration


»Volume 29





Similar Articles



Jump to Article

Volume Page
Volume Article ID