Volume 37 - Article 34 | Pages 1049–1080 Author has provided data and code for replicating results

The impact of kin availability, parental religiosity, and nativity on fertility differentials in the late 19th-century United States

By J. David Hacker, Evan Roberts

Print this page  

 

References

Allen, N. (1877). Changes in New England population. Lowell: Stone Huse.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Atack, J. and Bateman, F. (1987). To their own soil: Agriculture in the antebellum North. Ames: Iowa State University Press.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Brodie, J.F. (1994). Contraception and abortion in 19th-century America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Burgess, E.W. and Cottrell, L.S. (1939). Predicting success or failure in marriage. New York: Prentice Hall.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Burgess, E.W. and Wallin, P. (1953). Engagement and marriage. Philadelphia: Lippincott.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Carter, S.B., Ransom, R.L., and Sutch, R. (2004). Family matters: The life-cycle transition and the antebellum American fertility decline. In: Guinnane, T.W., Sundstrom, W.A., and Whatley, W. (eds.). History matters: Essays on economic growth, technology, and demographic change. Stanford: Stanford University Press: 271–327.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Chaves, M. (1994). Secularization as declining religious authority. Social Forces 72(3): 749–774.

Weblink doi:10.1093/sf/72.3.749
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Coale, A.J. and Zelnik, M. (1963). New estimates of fertility and population in the United States. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Weblink doi:10.1515/9781400874934
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Degler, C.N. (1980). At odds: Women and the family in America from the Revolution to the present. New York: Oxford University Press.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Dribe, M., Hacker, J.D., and Scalone, F. (2014). Socioeconomic status and net fertility during the fertility decline: A comparative analysis of Canada, Iceland, Sweden, Norway and the United States. Population Studies 68(2): 135–149.

Weblink doi:10.1080/00324728.2014.889741
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Easterlin, R.A., Alter, G., and Condran, G. (1978). Farms and farm families in old and new areas: The northern United States in 1860. In: Hareven, T.K. and Vinovskis, M. (eds.). Family and population in nineteenth-century America. Princeton: Princeton University Press: 22–84.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Easterlin, R.S. (1976). Population change and farm settlement in the northern United States. Journal of Economic History 36(1): 45–75.

Weblink doi:10.1017/S002205070009450X
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Fischer, D.H. (1989). Albion’s seed: Four British folkways in America. New Yoek: Oxford University Press.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Flinn, M.V. (1989). Household composition and female reproductive strategies in a Trinidadian village. In: Rasa, A.E., Vogel, C., and Voland, E. (eds.). The sociobiology of sexual and reproductive strategies. London: Chapman and Hall: 206–233.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Forste, R. and Tienda, M. (1996). What’s behind racial and ethnic fertility differentials? Population and Development Review 22(Suppl): 109–133.

Weblink doi:10.2307/2808008
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Forster, C. and Tucker, G.S.L. (1972). Economic opportunity and white American fertility ratios, 1800–1860. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Gjerde, J. and McCants, A. (1995). Fertility, marriage, and culture: Demographic processes among Norwegian immigrants to the rural Middle West. The Journal of Economic History 55(4): 860–888.

Weblink doi:10.1017/S0022050700042194
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Goldberger, A.S. (1991). A course in econometrics. London: Harvard University Press.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Goldscheider, C. and Uhlenberg, P. (1969). Minority group status and fertility. The American Journal of Sociology 74(4): 361–372.

Weblink doi:10.1086/224662
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Grigoryeva, A. and Ruef, M. (2015). The historical demography of racial segregation. American Sociological Review 80(4): 465–486.

Weblink doi:10.2307/2060943
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Guest, A.M. (1981). Social structure and U.S. inter-state fertility differentials in 1900. Demography 18(4): 465–486.

Weblink doi:10.2307/2060943
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Guest, A.M. and Tolnay, S.E. (1983). Children’s roles and fertility: Late nineteenth-century United States. Social Science History 9(4): 355–380.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Hacker, J.D. (2003). Rethinking the ‘early’ decline of marital fertility in the United States. Demography 40(4): 605–620.

Weblink doi:10.1353/dem.2003.0035
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Hacker, J.D. (2016). Ready, willing and able? Impediments to onset of marital fertility decline in the United States. Demography 53(6): 1657–1692.

Weblink doi:10.1007/s13524-016-0513-7
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Hacker, J.D. (1999). Child naming, religion, and the decline of marital fertility in nineteenth-century America. History of the Family 4(3): 339–365.

Weblink doi:10.1016/S1081-602X(99)00019-6
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Hacker, J.D., Hilde, L.R., and Jones, J.H. (2010). The effect of the Civil War on southern marriage patterns. Journal of Southern History 76(1): 39–70.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Haines, M.R. (1992). Occupation and social class during fertility decline: Historical perspectives. In: Gillis, J.R., Tilly, L.A., and Levine, D. (eds.). The European experience of changing fertility. Cambridge: Blackwell.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Haines, M.R. and Hacker, J.D. (2011). Spatial aspects of the American fertility transition in the nineteenth century. In: Gutmann, M.P., Deane, G.D., Sylvester, K.M., and Merchant, E.R. (eds.). Navigating time and space in population studies. New York: Springer.

Weblink doi:10.1007/978-94-007-0068-0_3
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Hareven, T.K. (1994). Aging and generational relations: A historical and life course perspective. Annual Review of Sociology 20: 437–461.

Weblink doi:10.1146/annurev.so.20.080194.002253
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Hareven, T.K. and Vinvoskis, M.A. (1975). Marital fertility, ethnicity, and occupation in urban families: An analysis of South Boston and the South End in 1880. Journal of Southern History 8(3): 69–93.

Weblink doi:10.1353/jsh/8.3.69
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Hawkes, K., O’Connell, J.F., and Blurton Jones, N.G. (1989). Hardworking Hadza grandmothers. In: Standen, V. and Foley, R.A. (eds.). Comparative socioecology: The behavioural ecology of humans and other mammals. Oxford: Blackwell.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Hrdy, S.B. (2009). Mothers and others: The evolutionary origins of mutual understanding. Cambridge: Belknap Press.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Jennings, J.A., Sullivan, A.R., and Hacker, J.D. (2012). Intergenerational transmission of reproductive behavior during the onset of the fertility transition in the United States: New evidence from the Utah Population Database. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 42(4): 543–569.

Weblink doi:10.1162/JINH_a_00304
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Jones, L.E. and Tertilt, M. (2008). An economic history of fertility in the U.S.: 1826–1960. Frontiers of Family Economics 1: 165–230.

Weblink doi:10.1016/S1574-0129(08)00005-7
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Kahn, J.R. (1994). Immigrant and native fertility during the 1980s: Adaptation and expectations for the future. The International Migration Review 28(3): 501–519.

Weblink doi:10.2307/2546818
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Kahn, J.R. (1988). Immigrant selectivity and fertility adaptation in the United States. Social Forces 67(1): 108–128.

Weblink doi:10.1093/sf/67.1.108
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

King, M. and Ruggles, S. (1990). American immigration, fertility, and race suicide at the turn of the century. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 20: 347–369.

Weblink doi:10.2307/204082
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Klepp, S.E. (2009). Revolutionary conceptions: Women, fertility, and family limitation in America 1760–1820. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Weblink doi:10.5149/9780807838716_Klepp
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Landis, J.T. (1960). Religiousness, family relationships, and family values in Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish families. Marriage and Family Living 22(4): 341–347.

Weblink doi:10.2307/347249
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Leasure, J.W. (1982). La baisse de la fécondité aux État-Unis de 1800 à 1860. Population 37(3): 607–622.

Weblink doi:10.2307/1532174
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Lesthaeghe, R. and Neidert, L. (2006). The second demographic transition in the United States: Exception or textbook example? Population and Development Review 32(4): 669–698.

Weblink doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2006.00146.x
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Logan, T. and Parman, J. (2017). The national rise in residential segregation. Journal of Economic History 77(1): 127–170.

Weblink doi:10.1017/S0022050717000079
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Mace, R. and Sear, R. (2005). Are humans cooperative breeders? In: Voland, E., Chasiotis, A., and Schiefenhoevel, W. (eds.). Grandmotherhood: The evolutionary significance of the second half of female life. Piscataway: Rutgers University Press: 143–159.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

MacNamara, T. (2014). Why ‘race suicide’? Cultural factors in U.S. fertility decline, 1903–1908. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 44(4): 475–508.

Weblink doi:10.1162/JINH_a_00611
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Main, G.L. (2006). Rocking the cradle: Downsizing the New England family. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 37(1): 35–58.

Weblink doi:10.1162/jinh.2006.37.1.35
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Mathews, P. and Sear, R. (2013). Family and fertility: Kin influence on the progression to a second birth in the British Household Panel Study. PLoS ONE 8: e56941.

Weblink doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056941
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Minnesota Population Center (2015). North Atlantic Population Project: Complete count microdata. Version 2.2. [machine readable database]. Minneapolis: Minnesota Population Center.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Moore, R.L. (1989). Religion, secularization, and the shaping of the culture industry in antebellum America. American Quarterly 41(2): 216–242.

Weblink doi:10.2307/2713023
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Morgan, S.P., Watkins, S.C., and Ewbank, D.C. (1994). Generating Americans: Ethnic differences in fertility. In: Watkins, S.C. (ed.). After Ellis Island: Newcomers and natives in the 1910 Census. New York: Russell Sage.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Moya, C. and Sear, R. (2014). Intergenerational conflicts may help explain parental absence effects on reproductive timing: A model of age at first birth in humans. PeerJ 2: e512.

Weblink doi:10.7717/peerj.512
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Newson, L., Postmes, T., Lea, S.G., and Webley, P. (2005). Why are modern families small? Toward an evolutionary and cultural explanation for the demographic transition. Personality and Social Psychology Review 9: 360–375.

Weblink doi:10.1207/s15327957pspr0904_5
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Olson, S. (2015). Ladders of mobility in a fast-growing industrial city: Two by two and twenty years later. In: Baskerville, P. and Inwood, K. (eds.). Lives in transition: Longitudinal analysis of historical sources. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press: 189–210.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Parkerson, D.H. and Parkerson, J.A. (1988). Fewer children of greater spiritual quality: Religion and the decline of fertility in nineteenth-century America. Social Science History 12(1): 49–70.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Preston, S.H. and Haines, M.R. (1991). Fatal years: Child mortality in late nineteenth-century America. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Weblink doi:10.1515/9781400861897
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Reher, D.S. (1998). Family ties in Western Europe: Persistent contrasts. Population and Development Review 24(2): 203–234.

Weblink doi:10.2307/2807972
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Roberts, E., Ruggles, S., Dillon, L.Y., Garðarsdóttir, Ó., Oldervoll, J., Thorvaldsen, G., and Woollard, M. (2003). The North Atlantic Population Project: An overview. Historical Methods 36(2): 80–88.

Weblink doi:10.1080/01615440309601217
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Ruggles, S. (2003). Multigenerational families in nineteenth-century America. Continuity and Change 18(1): 139–165.

Weblink doi:10.1017/S0268416003004466
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Ruggles, S. (2009). Reconsidering the Northwest European family system: Living arrangements of the aged in comparative historical perspective. Population and Development Review 35(2): 249–273.

Weblink doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2009.00275.x
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Ruggles, S. (2014). Big microdata for population research. Demography 51(1): 287–297.

Weblink doi:10.1007/s13524-013-0240-2
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Ruggles, S. and Brower, S. (2003). The measurement of household and family composition in the United States, 1850–2000. Population and Development Review 29(1): 73–101.

Weblink doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2003.00073.x
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Scalone, F. and Dribe, D. (2017). Testing child–woman ratios and the own-children method on the 1900 Sweden census: Examples of indirect fertility estimates by socioeconomic status in a historical population. Historical Methods 50(1): 16–29.

Weblink doi:10.1080/01615440.2016.1219687
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Sear, R. and Coall, D. (2011). How much does family matter? Cooperative breeding and the demographic transition. Population and Development Review 37(Suppl. 1): 81–112.

Weblink doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2011.00379.x
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Sear, R., Mace, R., and McGregor, I.A. (2003). The effects of kin on female fertility in rural Gambia. Evolution and Human Behavior 24(1): 25–42.

Weblink doi:10.1016/S1090-5138(02)00105-8
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Smith, D.S. (1974). Family limitation, sexual control, and domestic feminism in Victorian America. In: Hartman, M.S. and Banner, L. (eds.). Clio’s consciousness raised: New perspectives on the history of women. New York: Harper and Row: 119–136.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Smith, D.S. (1994). The peculiarities of the Yankees: The vanguard of the fertility transition in the United States. Paper presented at the IUSSP Seminar of Values and Fertility Changes, Sion, Switzerland, February 16–19, 1994.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Smith, D.S. (1987). 'Early' fertility decline in America: A problem in family history. In: Hareven, T. and Plakans, A. (eds.). Family history at the crossroads: A Journal of Family History reader. Princeton: Princeton University Press: 77–84.

Weblink doi:10.1177/036319908701200105
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Smith, K.R., Garibotti, G., Fraser, A., and Mineau, G.P. (2005). Adult mortality and geographic proximity of parents in Utah in the 19th and 20th centuries. Paper presented at the Symposium on Kinship and Demographic Behavior, Salt Lake City.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Spring, A., Ackert, E., Crowder, K., and South, S.J. (2017). Influence of proximity to kin on residential mobility and destination choice: Examining local movers in metropolitan areas. Demography 54(4): 1277–1304.

Weblink doi:10.1007/s13524-017-0587-x
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Stevenson, T.H.C. (1920). The fertility of various social classes in England and Wales from the middle of the nineteenth century to 1911. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 83(3): 401444.

Weblink doi:10.2307/2340958
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Strassmann, B.I. (2011). Cooperation and competition in a cliff-dwelling people. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108(Suppl. 2): 10894–10901.

Weblink doi:10.1073/pnas.1100306108
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Turke, P.W. (1988). Helpers at the nest: Childcare networks on Ifaluk. In: Betzig, L., Borgerhoff Mulder, M., and Turke, P. (eds.). Human reproductive behaviour: A Darwinian perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 173–188.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Van Poppel, F. and Derosas, R. (2006). Introduction. In: Derosas, R. and Van Poppel, F. (eds.). Religion and the decline of fertility in the Western world. New York: Springer: 1–20.

Weblink doi:10.1007/1-4020-5190-5_1
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Vinovskis, M.A. (1982). Fertility in Massachusetts from the Revolution to the Civil War. New York: Academic Press.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Vinovskis, M.A. (1976). Socioeconomic determinants of interstate fertility differentials in the United States in 1850 and 1860. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 6(3): 375–396.

Weblink doi:10.2307/202662
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Wallin, P. (1954). Sex differences in attitudes to ‘in-laws’: A test of a theory. American Journal of Sociology 59(5): 466–469.

Weblink doi:10.1086/221392
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Wanamaker, M.H. (2012). Industrialization and fertility in the nineteenth century: Evidence from South Carolina. Journal of Economic History 72(1): 168–196.

Weblink doi:10.1017/S0022050711002476
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Yamane, D. (1997). Secularization on trial: In defense of a neosecularization paradigm. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 36(1): 109–122.

Weblink doi:10.2307/1387887
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Yasuba, Y. (1962). Birth rates of the white population in the United States. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX