Volume 46 - Article 15 | Pages 441–452

The long-term improvement in father–child relationships after divorce: Descriptive findings from the Netherlands

By Frederique Van Spijker, Matthijs Kalmijn, Ruben van Gaalen

Print this page  Facebook  Twitter


Date received:15 Jan 2019
Date published:17 Mar 2022
Word count:2448
Keywords:divorce, fathers, parent-child relations
Additional files:46-15 code (do file, 5 kB)


Background: Little is known about how the negative effect of parental divorce on father–child relations has changed over time. Existing cohort studies do not contain questions on father–child relationships after divorce and the investigated time period is often short.

Objective: The aim of this study is to describe long-term changes in the association between parental divorce and father–child contact.

Methods: We used pooled cross-sectional surveys from the Netherlands (N = 24,172) containing retrospective questions about respondents’ relations with parents during childhood. We compared divorce cohorts to examine trends. We used interaction effects of cohort and education to compare trends across educational groups.

Results: The results show that father–child relations after divorce improved across cohorts. There was a spectacular decline in the share of children who did not see their father after divorce, and if they did maintain contact there was also an increase – albeit more modest – in the perceived quality of the tie. Ironically, because the share of non-existent relationships declined so quickly, there was also an increase in the overall share of poor relationships with fathers. We further observe strong educational differences in post-divorce relationships with fathers, but these differences declined across divorce cohorts.

Conclusions: The quality of father–child relations after divorce improved considerably across cohorts. This trend is interpreted in terms of the institutionalization of divorce (less stigma and better legal arrangements for fathers) and changing gender roles.

Contribution: This trend is interpreted in terms of the institutionalization of divorce (less stigma and better legal arrangements for fathers) and in terms of changing gender roles.

Author's Affiliation

Frederique Van Spijker - Onderzoek, Informatie en Statistiek, Amsterdam , the Netherlands [Email]
Matthijs Kalmijn - Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut (NIDI), the Netherlands [Email]
Ruben van Gaalen - Universiteit van Amsterdam, the Netherlands [Email]

Other articles by the same author/authors in Demographic Research

» Weakened parent–child ties and the well-being of older divorced parents
Volume 48 - Article 21

» Migrating to a new country in late life: A review of the literature on international retirement migration
Volume 48 - Article 9

Most recent similar articles in Demographic Research

» Introduction to the Special Collection on The new roles of women and men and implications for families and societies
Volume 48 - Article 29    | Keywords: divorce

» Family inequality: On the changing educational gradient of family patterns in Western Germany
Volume 48 - Article 20    | Keywords: divorce

» Geographical distance between child and parent after a union dissolution in Sweden, 1974–2011
Volume 48 - Article 17    | Keywords: divorce

» A register-based account of period trends in union prevalence, entries, and exits by educational level for men and women in Finland
Volume 48 - Article 14    | Keywords: divorce

» Do the consequences of parental separation for children’s educational success vary by parental education? The role of educational thresholds
Volume 47 - Article 28    | Keywords: divorce