Volume 46 - Article 5 | Pages 131–146

Early life patterns of criminal legal system involvement: Inequalities by race/ethnicity, gender, and parental education

By Courtney Boen, Nick Graetz, Hannah Olson, Zohra Ansari-Thomas, Laurin Bixby, Rebecca Anna Schut, Hedwig Lee

Print this page  

 

References

Alexander, M. (2010). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. New York City: The New Press.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Arnett, J.J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist 55(5): 469–480.

Weblink doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.5.469
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Boen, C. (2020). Criminal justice contacts and psychophysiological functioning in early adulthood: Health inequality in the carceral state. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 61(3): 290–306.

Weblink doi:10.1177/0022146520936208
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Brame, R., Bushway, S., Paternoster, R., and Turner, M. (2014). Demographic patterns of cumulative arrest prevalence by ages 18 and 23. Crime and Delinquency 60(30): 471–486.

Weblink doi:10.1177/0011128713514801
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Brewer, R.M. and Heitzeg, N.A. (2008). The racialization of crime and punishment: Criminal justice, color-blind racism, and the political economy of the prison industrial complex. American Behavioral Scientist 51(5): 625–644.

Weblink doi:10.1177/0002764207307745
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Del Toro, J., Lloyd, T., Buchanan, K.S., Joi Robins, S., Zhang Bencharit, L., Gamson Smiedt, M., Reddy, K.S., Rodriguez Pouget, E., Kerrison, E.M., and Atiba Goff, P. (2019). The criminogenic and psychological effects of police stops on adolescent Black and Latino boys. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116(17): 8261–8268.

Weblink doi:10.1073/pnas.1808976116
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Edwards, F., Lee, H., and Esposito, M. (2019). Risk of being killed by police use of force in the United States by age, race–ethnicity, and sex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116(34).

Weblink doi:10.1073/pnas.1821204116
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Eppler-Epstein, S., Gurvis, A., and King, R. (2016). The alarming lack of data on Latinos in the criminal justice system. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Esposito, M.H., Lee, H., Hicken, M.T., Porter, L.C., and Herting, J.R. (2017). The consequences of contact with the criminal justice system for health in the transition to adulthood. Longitudinal and Life Course Studies 8(1): 57–74.

Weblink doi:10.14301/llcs.v8i1.405
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Federal Bureau of Investigation (2019). Crime in the United States, 2019. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Ghandnoosh, N. (2015). Black Lives Matter: Eliminating racial inequity in the criminal justice system. Washington, DC: The Sentencing Project.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Hagan, J. and Foster, H. (2012). Intergenerational educational effects of mass imprisonment in America. Sociology of Education 85(3): 259–286.

Weblink doi:10.1177/0038040711431587
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Hepburn, P., Kohler-Hausmann, I., and Medina, A.Z. (2019). Cumulative risks of multiple criminal justice outcomes in New York City. Demography 56(3): 1161–1171.

Weblink doi:10.1007/s13524-019-00781-7
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Herring, C., Yarbrough, D., and Alatorre, M.L. (2020). Pervasive penalty: How the criminalization of poverty perpetuates homelessness. Social Problems 67(1): 131–149.

Weblink doi:10.1093/socpro/spz004
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Hinton, E., Henderson, L., and Reed, C. (2018). An unjust burden: The disparate treatment of Black Americans in the criminal justice system. Brooklyn, New York: Vera Institute for Justice.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Kaeble, D. and Alper, M. (2020). Probation and parole in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Kruttschnitt, C. (2013). Gender and crime. Annual Review of Sociology 39(1): 291–308.

Weblink doi:10.1146/annurev-soc-071312-145605
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Lyons, C. and Pettit, B. (2011). Compounded disadvantage: Race, incarceration, and wage growth. Social Problems 58(2): 257–280.

Weblink doi:10.1525/sp.2011.58.2.257
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Maxfield, M.G., Weiler, B.L., and Widom, C.S. (2000). Comparing self-reports and official records of arrests. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 16(1): 87–110.

Weblink doi:10.1023/A:1007577512038
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Mitchell, O. and Caudy, M.S. (2015). Examining racial disparities in drug arrests. Justice Quarterly 32(2): 288–313.

Weblink doi:10.1080/07418825.2012.761721
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, (2018). Proactive policing: Effects on crime and communities. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

New York Civil Liberties Union (2016). Annual report. New York: New York Civil Liberties Union.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Panel Study of Income Dynamics (2020). Public use dataset.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Pettit, B. and Western, B. (2004). Mass imprisonment and the life course: Race and class inequality in US incarceration. American Sociological Review 69(2): 151–169.

Weblink doi:10.1177/000312240406900201
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Phelps, M.S. (2017). Mass probation: Toward a more robust theory of state variation in punishment. Punishment and Society 19(1): 53–73.

Weblink doi:10.1177/1462474516649174
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Piquero, A.R., Schubert, C.A., and Brame, R. (2014). Comparing official and self-report records of offending across gender and race/ethnicity in a longitudinal study of serious youthful offenders. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 51(4): 526556.

Weblink doi:10.1177/0022427813520445
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Rehavi, M.M. and Starr, S.B. (2012). Racial disparity in federal criminal charging and its sentencing consequences. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, University of Michigan Program in Law and Economics Working Paper Series 12-002.

Weblink doi:10.2139/ssrn.1985377
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Sawyer, S., Afifi, R., Bearinger, L., Blakemore, S., Dick, B., Ezeh, A., and Patton, G.C. (2012). Adolescence: A foundation for future health. The Lancet 379(9826): 1630–1640.

Weblink doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60072-5
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Sawyer, W. (2018). The gender divide: Tracking women’s state prison growth. Northampton, MA: Prison Policy Initiative.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Sewell, A.A. and Jefferson, K.A. (2016). Collateral damage: the health effects of invasive police encounters in New York City. Journal of Urban Health 93(1): 42–67.

Weblink doi:10.1007/s11524-015-0016-7
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

StataCorp (2013). STS Test. Stata 13 Base Reference Manual. College Station, TX: Stata Press.

Weblink https://www.stata.com/manuals13/stststest.pdf
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Sutton, J.E., Bellair, P.E., Kowalski, B.R., Light, R., and Hutcherson, D.T. (2011). Reliability and validity of prisoner self-reports gathered using the life event calendar method. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 27(2): 151–171.

Weblink doi:10.1007/s10940-010-9101-y
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Turney, K. and Schneider, D. (2016). Incarceration and household asset ownership. Demography 53(6): 2075–2103.

Weblink doi:10.1007/s13524-016-0519-1
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Walmsley, R. (2018). World prison population list – world prison brief. London: Institute for Criminal Policy Research.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Western, B. and Wildeman, C. (2009). The Black family and mass incarceration. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 621(1): 221–242.

Weblink doi:10.1177/0002716208324850
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Wildeman, C. and Wang, E.A. (2017). Mass incarceration, public health, and widening inequality in the USA. The Lancet 389(10077): 1464–1474.

Weblink doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30259-3
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX