Volume 5 - Article 5 | Pages 125–186

Cohort Reproductive Patterns in the Nordic Countries

By Tomas Frejka, Gerard Calot

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Date received:25 May 2001
Date published:28 Nov 2001
Word count:13110
Keywords:age patterns of fertility, cohort analysis, cohort fertility, low fertility, Nordic countries, prospects for below-replacement fertility, Scandinavia


Total fertility rates were declining from peaks experienced by early 1930s cohorts for 20 successive cohorts. The decline ceased among the 1950s and 1960s cohorts, because fertility deficits of young women were compensated with increased fertility when women reached their late twenties and thirties. The relative stability of completed fertility of these cohorts is attributed to Nordic social policies. Fertility deficits of young women in 1970s cohorts are comparatively large. For their completed fertility to be similar to that of earlier ones, there is considerably more catching up to do.
What remains an open issue is whether social policies will be sufficiently effective for couples born in the late 1960s and the 1970s to have births not born earlier in their lives.

Author's Affiliation

Tomas Frejka - Independent researcher, International [Email]
Gerard Calot - Observatoire Européen de la Démographie et de la Situation Sociale, France

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