Volume 23 - Article 1 | Pages 1–40  

Multi-residence in France and Australia: Why count them? What is at stake? Double counting and actual family situations

By Laurent Toulemon, Sophie Pennec


With the increasing diversity of family situations, growing numbers of people, including children, have more than one home. In France, nearly 4% of inhabitants are likely to be counted twice in surveys; while in Australia, the proportion is less than 2%. Taking into account the possibility that a single individual could have multiple residences is necessary not only to avoid double counting, but also to accurately describe the family situations of adults and children. In this paper, we first estimate the proportion of people living in two dwellings and then describe the consequences of these two-home situations for basic estimates of family situations. Our analysis is based on two large-scale surveys: the 2004 EU-SILC in France and the 2001 HILDA in Australia. A striking result is that, in France, half of all children who are counted as living with their fathers are in fact dividing their time between the homes of separated parents.

Author's Affiliation

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