Volume 32 - Article 38 | Pages 1065–1080
Migration signatures across the decades: Net migration by age in U.S. counties, 1950-2010
|Date received:||24 Oct 2014|
|Date published:||22 May 2015|
|Keywords:||age, internal migration, net migration, nonmetropolitan, retirement migration, segregation, urbanization|
|Updated Items:||On July 9, 2020, Figure 1d was replaced at the authors' request.|
|Additional files:||readme.32-38 (text file, 1 kB)|
|demographic-research.32-38 (zip file, 3 MB)|
Background: Migration is the primary population redistribution process in the United States. Selective migration by age, race/ethnic group, and spatial location governs population integration, affects community and economic development, contributes to land use change, and structures service needs.
Objective: Delineate historical net migration patterns by age, race/ethnic, and rural-urban dimensions for United States counties.
Methods: Net migration rates by age for all US counties are aggregated from 1950−2010, summarized by rural-urban location and compared to explore differential race/ethnic patterns of age-specific net migration over time.
Results: We identify distinct age-specific net migration ‘signatures’ that are consistent over time within county types, but different by rural-urban location and race/ethnic group. There is evidence of moderate population deconcentration and diminished racial segregation between 1990 and 2010. This includes a net outflow of Blacks from large urban core counties to suburban and smaller metropolitan counties, continued Hispanic deconcentration, and a slowdown in White counterurbanization.
Conclusions: This paper contributes to a fuller understanding of the complex patterns of migration that have redistributed the U.S. population over the past six decades. It documents the variability in county age-specific net migration patterns both temporally and spatially, as well as the longitudinal consistency in migration signatures among county types and race/ethnic groups.
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