Volume 37 - Article 13 | Pages 363–416 Editor's Choice Author has provided data and code for replicating results

Birth spacing, human capital, and the motherhood penalty at midlife in the United States

By Margaret Gough

Print this page  Facebook  Twitter


Date received:19 Jul 2016
Date published:16 Aug 2017
Word count:10654
Keywords:birth spacing, labor market factors, labor market outcome, motherhood, motherhood penalty
Additional files:readme.37-13 (text file, 487 Byte)
 demographic-research.37-13 (zip file, 10 MB)


Background: Researchers have examined how first-birth timing is related to motherhood wage penalties, but research that examines birth spacing is lacking. Furthermore, little research has examined the persistence of penalties across the life course.

Objective: The objective is to estimate the effects of birth spacing on midlife labor market outcomes and assess the extent to which these effects vary by education and age at first birth.

Methods: I use data from the United States from the 1979–2010 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and dynamic inverse probability of treatment weighting to estimate the effects of different birth intervals on mothers’ midlife cumulative work hours, cumulative earnings, and hourly wages. I examine how education and age at first birth moderate these effects.

Results: Women with birth intervals longer than two years but no longer than six years have the smallest penalties for cumulative outcomes; in models interacting the birth interval with age at first birth, postponement of a first birth to at least age 30 appears to be more important for cumulative outcomes than birth spacing. College-educated women benefit more from a longer birth interval than less educated women.

Conclusions: Childbearing strategies that result in greater accumulation of human capital provide long-run labor market benefits to mothers, and results suggest that different birth-spacing patterns could play a small role in facilitating this accumulation, as theorized in past literature.

Contribution: I contribute to the demographic literature by testing the theory that birth spacing matters for mothers’ labor market outcomes and by assessing the effects at midlife rather than immediately following a birth.

Author's Affiliation

Margaret Gough - University of La Verne, United States of America [Email]

Most recent similar articles in Demographic Research

» The wage penalty for motherhood: Evidence on discrimination from panel data and a survey experiment for Switzerland
Volume 37 - Article 56    | Keywords: motherhood, motherhood penalty

» 'Motherhood penalty' and 'fatherhood premium'? Fertility effects on parents in China
Volume 35 - Article 47    | Keywords: labor market outcome, motherhood

» Exploring the role of legal status and neighborhood social capital on immigrant economic integration in Los Angeles
Volume 46 - Article 1    | Keywords: labor market outcome

» Late motherhood, late fatherhood, and permanent childlessness: Trends by educational level and cohorts (1950–1970) in France
Volume 45 - Article 10    | Keywords: motherhood

» Age at first birth and subsequent fertility: The case of adolescent mothers in France and England and Wales
Volume 40 - Article 27    | Keywords: motherhood


»Volume 37





Similar Articles



Jump to Article

Volume Page
Volume Article ID