Volume 38 - Article 32 | Pages 879–896 Author has provided data and code for replicating results

Estimating mortality from external causes using data from retrospective surveys: A validation study in Niakhar (Senegal)

By Gilles Pison, Bruno Masquelier, Almamy Malick Kante, Cheikh Tidiane Ndiaye, Laetitia Douillot, Géraldine Duthé, Cheikh Sokhna, Valérie Delaunay, Stéphane Helleringer

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Date received:12 Dec 2016
Date published:07 Mar 2018
Word count:2575
Keywords:data quality, external causes of death, homicide, injuries, mortality, road traffic accidents, Senegal, suicide
Additional files:readme.38-32 (text file, 1 kB)
 demographic-research.38-32 (zip file, 136 kB)


Background: In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), data on causes of death is often inaccurate or incomplete. In this paper, we test whether adding a few questions about injuries and accidents to mortality questionnaires used in representative household surveys would yield accurate estimates of the extent of mortality due to external causes (accidents, homicides, or suicides).

Methods: We conduct a validation study in Niakhar (Senegal), during which we compare reported survey data to high-quality prospective records of deaths collected by a health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS).

Results: Survey respondents more frequently list the deaths of their adult siblings who die of external causes than the deaths of those who die from other causes. The specificity of survey data is high, but sensitivity is low. Among reported deaths, less than 60% of the deaths classified as due to external causes by the HDSS are also classified as such by survey respondents. Survey respondents better report deaths due to road-traffic accidents than deaths from suicides and homicides.

Conclusions: Asking questions about deaths resulting from injuries and accidents during surveys might help measure mortality from external causes in LMICs, but the resulting data displays systematic bias in a rural population of Senegal. Future studies should 1) investigate whether similar biases also apply in other settings and 2) test new methods to further improve the accuracy of survey data on mortality from external causes.

Contribution: This study helps strengthen the monitoring of sustainable development targets in LMICs by validating a simple approach for the measurement of mortality from external causes.

Author's Affiliation

Gilles Pison - Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, France [Email]
Bruno Masquelier - Institut National d'Études Démographiques (INED), France [Email]
Almamy Malick Kante - Columbia University, United States of America [Email]
Cheikh Tidiane Ndiaye - Agence Nationale de la Statistique et de la Démographie, Senegal [Email]
Laetitia Douillot - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), France [Email]
Géraldine Duthé - Institut National d'Études Démographiques (INED), France [Email]
Cheikh Sokhna - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), France [Email]
Valérie Delaunay - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), France [Email]
Stéphane Helleringer - Johns Hopkins University, United States of America [Email]

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