Volume 33 - Article 9 | Pages 239–272

The low importance of marriage in eastern Germany - social norms and the role of peoples’ perceptions of the past

By Andreas Klärner

Print this page  

 

References

Arranz-Becker, O., Lois, D., and Nauck, B. (2010). Differences in fertility patterns between east and west German women: Disentangling the roles of cultural background and of the transformation process. Comparative population studies 35(1): 7–34.

Weblink doi:10.4232/10.CPoS-2010-02en
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Axinn, W. and Thornton, A. (2000). The transformation in the meaning of marriage. In: Waite, L.J. (ed.). The ties that bind: Perspectives on marriage and cohabitation. New York: Aldine de Gruyter: 147–165.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Barbour, R. (2007). Doing focus groups. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Barlow, A. (2004). Regulation of cohabitation, changing family policies and social attitudes: A discussion of Britain within Europe. Law & Policy 26(1): 57–86.

Weblink doi:10.1111/j.0265-8240.2004.00163.x
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Barlow, A. and Probert, R. (2004). Regulating marriage and cohabitation: Changing family values and policies in Europe and North America: An introductory critique. Law & Policy 26(1): 1–11.

Weblink doi:10.1111/j.0265-8240.2004.00160.x
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Bastin, S., Kreyenfeld, M. , and Schnor, C. (2013). Diversität von Familienformen in Ost- und Westdeutschland. In: Herma, H., Schierbaum, A., and Krüger, D. (eds.). Familie(n) heute. Entwicklungen, Kontroversen, Prognosen. Weinheim: Beltz: 126–145.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Bauman, Z. (2007). Liquid times: Living in an age of uncertainty. Cambridge: Polity.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Beck-Gernsheim, E (1998). On the way to a post-familial family: From a community of need to elective affinities. Theory, Culture & Society 15(3): 53–70.

Weblink doi:10.1177/0263276498015003004
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Beck-Gernsheim, E. (2002). Reinventing the family: In search of new lifestyles. Cambridge: Polity.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Beck-Gernsheim, E. (2012). From rights and obligations to contested rights and obligations: Individualization, globalization, and family law. Theoretical Inquiries in Law 13(1): 1–14.

Weblink doi:10.1515/1565-3404.1283
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Bengtson, V.L. and Allen, K.R. (1993). The life course perspective applied to families over time. In: Boss, P.G., Doherty, W.J., LaRossa, R., Schumm, W.R., and Steinmetz, S.K. (eds.). Sourcebook of family theories and methods: A contextual approach. New York, NY: Springer: 469–504.

Weblink doi:10.1007/978-0-387-85764-0_19
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Bernardi, L., Klärner, A., and von der Lippe, H. (2008). Job insecurity and the timing of parenthood: A comparison between eastern and western Germany. European Journal of Population 24(3): 287–313.

Weblink doi:10.1007/s10680-007-9127-5
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Billari, F.C., Liefbroer, A.C., and Philipov, D. (2006). The postponement of childbearing in Europe: Driving forces and implications. Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 4: 1–17.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Bloor, M., Frankland, J., Thomas, M., and Robson, K. (2001). Focus groups in social research. London: SAGE.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Bowman, C.G. (2010). Unmarried couples, law, and public policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Cartwright, K.D. (2000). Shotgun weddings and the meaning of marriage in Russia. The History of the Family 5(1): 1–22.

Weblink doi:10.1016/S1081-602X(00)00029-4
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Coleman, J.S. (1986). Social theory, social research, and a theory of action. American Journal of Sociology 91(6): 1309–1335.

Weblink doi:10.1086/228423
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Elder, G.H. (1985). Life course dynamics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Emirbayer, M. and Mische, A. (1998). What is agency? American Journal of Sociology 103(4): 962–1023.

Weblink doi:10.1086/231294
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Engelhardt, H., Trappe, H., and Dronkers, J. (2002). Differences in family policy and the intergenerational transmission of divorce: A comparison between the former East and West Germany. Demographic Research 6(11): 295–324.

Weblink doi:10.4054/DemRes.2002.6.11
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Esping-Andersen, G. (1999). Social foundations of postindustrial economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Weblink doi:10.1093/0198742002.001.0001
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Flick, U. (2009). An introduction to qualitative research: Fourth edition. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Friedman, D., Hechter, M., and Kanazawa, S. (1994). A theory of the value of children. Demography 31(3): 375–401.

Weblink doi:10.2307/2061749
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Froese, P. and Pfaff, S. (2005). Explaining a religious anomaly: A historical analysis of secularization in Eastern Germany. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 44(4): 397–422.

Weblink doi:10.1111/j.1468-5906.2005.00294.x
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Gibson-Davis, C.M., Edin, K., and McLanahan, S. (2005). High hopes but even higher expectations: The retreat from marriage among low-income couples. Journal of Marriage and the Family 67(5): 1301–1312.

Weblink doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2005.00218.x
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Goldstein, J.R. and Kreyenfeld, M. (2011). Has east Germany overtaken west Germany?: Recent trends in order-specific fertility. Population and Development Review 37(3): 453–472.

Weblink doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2011.00430.x
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Graham, H. and McDermott, E. (2006). Qualitative research and the evidence base of policy: Insights from studies of teenage mothers in the UK. Journal of Social Policy 35(1): 21–37.

Weblink doi:10.1017/S0047279405009360
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Granovetter, M.S. (1985). Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology 91(3): 481–510.

Weblink doi:10.1086/228311
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Heuveline, P. and Timberlake, J.M. (2004). The role of cohabitation in family for¬mation: The United States in comparative perspective. Journal of Marriage and the Family 66(5): 1214–1230.

Weblink doi:10.1111/j.0022-2445.2004.00088.x
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Holland, J.A. (2013). Love, marriage, then the baby carriage? Marriage timing and childbearing in Sweden. Demographic Research 29(11): 275–306.

Weblink doi:10.4054/DemRes.2013.29.11
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Huinink, J., Kreyenfeld, M., and Trappe, H. (2012). Familie und Partnerschaft in Ost- und Westdeutschland. Ähnlich und doch immer noch anders. Opladen: Budrich.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Huinink, J., Mayer, K.U., and Trappe, H. (1995). Staatliche Lenkung und individuelle Karrierechancen. Bildungs- und Berufsverläufe. In: Huinink, J. and Mayer, K.U. (eds.). Kollektiv und Eigensinn. Lebensverläufe in der DDR und danach. Berlin: Akademie Verlag: 89–143.

Weblink doi:10.1524/9783050071497.89
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Hunink, J. and Wagner, M. (1995). Partnerschaft, Ehe und Familie in der DDR. In: Huinink, J. and Mayer, K.U. (eds.). Kollektiv und Eigensinn. Lebensverläufe in der DDR und danach. Berlin: Akademie Verlag: 145–188.

Weblink doi:10.1524/9783050071497.145
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Inglehart, R. (1977). The silent revolution: Changing values and political styles among western publics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Inglehart, R. (1997). Modernization and postmodernization: Cultural, economic, and political change in 43 societies. Princeton, NJ.: Princeton University Press.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Kalmijn, M. (2007). Explaining cross-national differences in marriage, cohabitation, and divorce in Europe, 1990–2000. Population Studies: A Journal of Demography 61(3): 243–263.

Weblink doi:10.1080/00324720701571806
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Keller, S. and Marten, C. (2012). Jugend (wieder-)vereinigt? Die Familien- und Berufserwartungen ost- und westdeutscher Jugendlicher. In: Huinink, J., Kreyenfeld, M., and Trappe, H. (eds.). Familie und Partnerschaft in Ost- und Westdeutschland. Ähnlich und doch immer noch anders. Opladen: Budrich: 299–318.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Klärner, A. and Keim, S. (2011). (Re-)Traditionalisierung und Flexibilität. Intergenerationale Unterstützungsleistungen und die Reproduktion von Geschlechterungleichheiten in West- und Ostdeutschland. In: Berger, P.A., Hank, K., and Tölke, A. (eds.). Reproduktion von Ungleichheit durch Arbeit und Familie. Wiesbaden: VS: 121–144.

Weblink doi:10.1007/978-3-531-94117-2_6
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Klenner, C. (2009). Wer ernährt die Familie? Erwerbs- und Einkommenskonstellationen in Ostdeutschland. WSI-Mitteilungen 11: 619–626.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Klüsener, S. and Goldstein, J.R. (2014). A Long-Standing Demographic East–West Divide in Germany. Population, Space and Place (Online First) .

Weblink doi:10.1002/psp.1870
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Klüsener, S. and Kreyenfeld, M. (2009). Nichteheliche Geburten im regionalen Vergleich [electronic resource]. Leipzig: Leibniz-Institut für Länderkunde.

Weblink http://aktuell.nationalatlas.de/Nichteheliche ...
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Klüsener, S., Perelli-Harris, B., and Sánchez Gassen, N. (2013). Spatial aspects of the rise of nonmarital fertility across Europe since 1960: The role of states and regions in shaping patterns of change. European Journal of Population 29(2): 137–165.

Weblink doi:10.1007/s10680-012-9278-x
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Klüsener, S., Perelli-Harris, B., and Sánchez Gassen, N. (2013). Spatial aspects of the rise of nonmarital fertility across Europe since 1960: The role of states and regions in shaping patterns of change. European Journal of Population 29(2): 137–165.

Weblink doi:10.1007/s10680-012-9278-x
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Konietzka, D. and Kreyenfeld, M. (2002). Women’s employment and non-marital childbearing: A comparison between East and West Germany in the 1990s. Population (English Edition) 57(2): 331–357.

Weblink doi:10.3917/popu.202.0359
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Krause, P. and Ostner, I. (2010). Leben in Ost- und Westdeutschland. Eine sozialwissenschaftliche Bilanz der deutschen Einheit 1990 – 2010. Frankfurt am Main: Campus.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Kravdal, O. (1999). Does marriage require a stronger economic underpinning than informal cohabitation? Population Studies 53(1): 63–80.

Weblink doi:10.1080/00324720308067
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Kreyenfeld, M. and Konietzka, D. (2008). Wandel der Geburten und Familienentwicklung in West- und Ostdeutschland. In: Schneider, N.F. (ed.). Lehrbuch Moderne Familiensoziologie: Theorien, Methoden, empirische Befunde. Rostock: MPIDR: 8–9.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Lesthaeghe, R. (2010). The unfolding story of the Second Demographic Transition. Population and Development Review 36(2): 211–251.

Weblink doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2010.00328.x
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Levin, I. (2004). Living apart together: A new family form. Current Sociology 52(2): 223–240.

Weblink doi:10.1177/0011392104041809
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Liamputtong, P. (2011). Focus group methodology: Principles and Practice. London: SAGE.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Manting, D. (1996). The changing meaning of cohabitation and marriage. European Sociological Review 12(1): 53–65.

Weblink doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.esr.a018177
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Mayer, K.U. (2009). New Directions in Life Course Research. Annual Review of Sociology 35: 413–433.

Weblink doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134619
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Mayer, K.U. and Schulze, E. (2009). Die Wendegeneration. Lebensverläufe des Jahrgangs 1971. Frankfurt am Main: Campus.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Mayer, K.U. and Solga, H. (2010). Lebensverläufe im deutsch-deutschen Vereinigungsprozess. In: Krause, P. and Ostner, I. (eds.). Leben in Ost- und Westdeutschland. Eine sozialwissenschaftliche Bilanz der deutschen Einheit 1990 – 2010. Frankfurt am Main: Campus: 39–56.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

McDonald, P. (2006). Low fertility and the state: The efficacy of policy. Population and Development Review 32(3): 485–510.

Weblink doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2006.00134.x
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Statistisches Amt (2011). Zensus 2011. Bevölkerung und Haushalte. Kreisfreie Stadt Rostock [electronic resource].

Weblink http://rathaus.rostock.de/sixcms/media.php/14 ...
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Meulemann, H. (2003). Erzwungene Säkularisierung in der DDR – Wiederaufleben des Glaubens in Ostdeutschland? Religiöser Glaube in ost- und westdeutschen Alterskohorten zwischen 1991 und 1998. In: Gärtner, C., Pollack, D., and Wohlrab-Sahr, M. (eds.). Atheismus und religiöse Indifferenz. Opladen: Leske + Budrich: 247–270.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Mills, M. and Blossfeld, H.-P. (2003). Globalization, uncertainty and changes in early life courses. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft 6(2): 188–218.

Weblink doi:10.1007/s11618-003-0023-4
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Munoz-Pérez, F. and Prioux, F. (2000). Children born outside marriage in France and their parents: Recognitions and legitimations since 1965. Population 12(1): 139–195.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Mynarska, M. and Bernardi, L. (2007). Meanings and attitudes attached to cohabitation in Poland: Qualitative analyses of the slow diffusion of cohabitation among the young generation. Demographic Research 16(17): 519–554.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Nazio, T. and Blossfeld, H.-P. (2003). The diffusion of cohabitation among young women in West Germany, East Germany and Italy. European Journal of Population 19(1): 47–82.

Weblink doi:10.1023/A:1022192608963
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Oppenheimer, V.K. (2003). Cohabiting and marriage during young men’s career-devel¬opment process. Demography 40(1): 127–149.

Weblink doi:10.1353/dem.2003.0006
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Oppenheimer, V.K., Kalmijn, M., and Lim, N. (1997). Men’s career de¬velopment and marriage timing during a period of rising inequality. Demography 34(3): 311–330.

Weblink doi:10.2307/3038286
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. London: SAGE.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Perelli-Harris, B., Kreyenfeld, M., Sigle-Rushton, W., Keizer, R., Lappegård, T., Jasilioniene, A., Berghammer, C., and Di Giulio, P. (2012). Changes in union status during the transition to parenthood in eleven European countries, 1970s to early 2000s. Population Studies 66(2): 167–182.

Weblink doi:10.1080/00324728.2012.673004
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Perelli-Harris, B., Mynarska, M., Berrington, A., Evans, A., Berghammer, C., Isupova, O., Keizer, R., Klärner, A., Lappegård, T., and Vignoli, D. (2014). Towards a new understanding of cohabitation: Insights from focus group research across Europe and Australia. Demographic Research 31(34): 1043–1078.

Weblink doi:10.4054/DemRes.2014.31.34
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Perelli-Harris, B. and Sánchez Gassen, N. (2012). How similar are cohabitation and marriage?: Legal approaches to cohabitation across western Europe. Population and Development Review 38(3): 435–467.

Weblink doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2012.00511.x
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Perelli-Harris, B., Sigle-Rushton, W., Kreyenfeld, M., Lappegård, T., Keizer, R., and Berghammer, C. (2010). The educational gradient of childbearing within cohabitation in Europe. Population and Development Review 36(4): 775–801.

Weblink doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2010.00357.x
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Peuckert, R. (2012). Familienformen im sozialen Wandel. Wiesbaden: VS.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Pfau-Effinger, B. and Geissler, B. (2002). Cultural change and family policies in East and West Germany. In: Carling, A., Duncan, S., and Edwards, R. (eds.). Analysing families: Morality and rationality in policy and practice. London: Routledge: 77–83.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Pfau-Effinger, B. and Smidt, M. (2011). Differences in women’s employment patterns and family policies: eastern and western Germany. Community, Work & Family 14(2): 217–232.

Weblink doi:10.1080/13668803.2011.571401
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Pickel, G. (2012). Religiosity and bonding to the church in East Germany in eastern European Comparison: Is East Germany still following a special path? In: Pickel, G. and Sammet, K. (eds.). Transformations of religiosity. Wiesbaden: VS: 135–154.

Weblink doi:10.1007/978-3-531-93326-9
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Ramsøy, N.R. (1994). Non-marital cohabitation and change in norms: The case of Norway. Acta Sociologica 37(1): 23–37.

Weblink doi:10.1177/000169939403700102
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Rosenfeld, R.A., Trappe, H., and Gornick, J.C. (2004). Gender and work in Germany: Before and after reunification. Annual Review of Sociology 30: 103–124.

Weblink doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.30.012703.110531
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Salles, A. (2006). The effects of family policy in the former GDR on nuptiality and births outside marriage. Population (English Edition) 61(1/2): 141–151.

Weblink doi:10.3917/popu.601.0141
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Schneider, N.F. and Rüger, H. (2007). Value of Marriage: Der subjektive Sinn der Ehe und die Entscheidung zur Heirat. Zeitschrift für Soziologie 36(2): 131–152.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Schnor, C. (2012). Trennungsrisiko von Paaren mit Kindern: Der Einfluss der Religion in West-und Ostdeutschland. Journal of Family Research Special Issue(9): 229–256.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Scott, J. (1999). European attitudes towards maternal employment. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 19: 144–177.

Weblink doi:10.1108/01443339910788929
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Sobotka, T., Skirbekk, V., and Philipov, D. (2011). Economic recession and fertility in the developed world. Population and Development Review 37(2): 267–306.

Weblink doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2011.00411.x
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Sobotka, T. and Toulemon, L. (2008). Overview chapter 4: Changing family and partnership behaviour. Demographic Research 19: 85–138.

Weblink doi:10.4054/DemRes.2008.19.6
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Statistische Ämter, des Bundes und der Länder (2014). Zensus 2011 – Bevölkerung nach Geschlecht, Alter, Staatsangehörigkeit, Familienstand und Religionszugehörigkeit [electronic resource].

Weblink http://www.statistikportal.de/statistik-porta ...
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Stewart, D.W., Shamdasani, P.N., and Rook, D.W. (2007). Focus groups: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Surkyn, J. and Lesthaeghe, R. (2004). Value orientations and the second demographic transition (SDT) in northern, western and southern Europe: An update. Demographic Research, Special Collection 3: 45–75.

Weblink doi:10.4054/DemRes.2004.S3.3
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Thornton, A., Axinn, W.G., and Xie, Y. (2007). Marriage and cohabitation. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Weblink doi:10.7208/chicago/9780226798684.001.0001
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Thornton, A. and Philipov, D. (2009). Sweeping changes in marriage, cohabitation and childbearing in central and eastern Europe: New insights from the developmental idealism framework. European Journal of Population 25(2): 123–156.

Weblink doi:10.1007/s10680-009-9181-2
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Träger, J. (2009). Familie im Umbruch: Quantitative und qualitative Befunde zur Wahl von Familienmodellen. Wiesbaden: VS.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Trappe, H. (1995). Emanzipation oder Zwang?: Frauen in der DDR zwischen Beruf, Familie und Sozialpolitik. Berlin: Akademie Verlag.

Weblink doi:10.1515/9783050071510
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Trappe, H. (1996). Work and family in women's lives in the German Democratic Republic. Work and Occupations 23(4): 354–377.

Weblink doi:10.1177/0730888496023004003
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Trappe, H. and Rosenfeld, R.A. (2004). Occupational sex segregation and family formation in the former East and West Germany. Work and Occupations 31(2): 155–192.

Weblink doi:10.1177/0730888404263895
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Trappe, H. and Rosenfeld, R.A. (1998). A comparison of job-shifting patterns in the former East Germany and the former West Germany. European Sociological Review 14(4): 343–368.

Weblink doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.esr.a018244
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Trappe, H. and Sørensen, A. (2006). Economic relations between women and their partners: An east and west German comparison after reunification. Feminist Economics 12(4): 643–665.

Weblink doi:10.1080/13545700600885255
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Treas, J. and Widmer, E.D. (2000). Married women’s employment over the life course: Attitudes in cross-national perspective. Social Forces 78(4): 1409–1436.

Weblink doi:10.1093/sf/78.4.1409
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

van de Kaa, D.J. (1987). Europe's second demographic transition. Population Bulletin of the United Nations 42(1): 1–59.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

van de Kaa, D.J. (2001). Postmodern fertility preferences: From changing value orientation to new behavior. Population and Development Review 27(Supplement: Global Fertility Transition): 290–331.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Witte, J.C. and Wagner, G.G. (1995). Declining fertility in East Germany after unification: A demographic response to socioeconomic change. Population and Development Review 21(2): 387–397.

Weblink doi:10.2307/2137500
Download reference in RIS | BibTeX

Wohlrab-Sahr, M., Karstein, U., and Schmidt-Lux, T. (2009). Forcierte Säkularität. Religiöser Wandel und Generationendynamik im Osten Deutschlands. Frankfurt am Main, New York: Campus.

Download reference in RIS | BibTeX