Volume 40 - Article 16 | Pages 417–430 Author has provided data and code for replicating results

The association between neonatal death and facility birth in regions of India

By Diane Coffey

Print this page  Facebook  Twitter


Date received:26 Sep 2018
Date published:26 Feb 2019
Word count:2368
Keywords:births, health, health care, India, neonatal mortality
Additional files:readme.40-16 (text file, 2 kB)
 demographic-research.40-16 (zip file, 3 kB)


Background: Reducing neonatal mortality in India is critical to achieving the 2030 Sustainable Development Goal of a global neonatal mortality rate (NNM) of no more than 12 per 1,000. Policy efforts to reduce India’s NNM, including a large-scale conditional cash transfer program, have focused on promoting birth in health facilities, rather than at home. Between 2005 and 2015, the percentage of facility births doubled, from 40% to 80%.

Objective: We assess evidence for the hypothesis that facility births reduce NNM by using new data from the National Family Health Survey, 2015–2016.

Methods: We analyze the association between neonatal death and facility birth at the region level, using ordinary least squares (OLS) linear probability models with fixed effects for the primary sampling unit, as well as child, mother, and household-level controls.

Results: For babies born outside of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, facility birth is robustly associated with neonatal survival. The controlled association between facility birth and neonatal survival is 7 per 1,000 in the east region (West Bengal, Assam, Jharkhand, Odisha) and 13 per 1,000 in the central region (Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh). In Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, however, being born in a health facility appears to confer no neonatal survival advantage.

Contribution: Documenting the lack of an association between facility birth and neonatal death in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar is important because these states collectively contribute 43% of India’s NNM. These findings suggest the need for future research to investigate whether and how the quality of maternal and newborn care in health facilities differs across regions.

Author's Affiliation

Diane Coffey - University of Texas at Austin, United States of America [Email]

Most recent similar articles in Demographic Research

» The weight of school entry: Weight gain among Hispanic children of immigrants during the elementary school years
Volume 40 - Article 5    | Keywords: health

» Immigrant women and Medicaid-financed births
Volume 39 - Article 31    | Keywords: births

» Neonatal mortality, cold weather, and socioeconomic status in two northern Italian rural parishes, 1820–1900
Volume 39 - Article 18    | Keywords: neonatal mortality

» Using census data to measure maternal mortality: A review of recent experience
Volume 39 - Article 11    | Keywords: births

» Disability crossover: Is there a Hispanic immigrant health advantage that reverses from working to old age?
Volume 39 - Article 7    | Keywords: health






Similar Articles



Jump to Article

Volume Page
Volume Article ID